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AUDCAD

Australian Dollar vs Canadian Dollar

Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, A$, AU$ and AU$. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly. Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency.Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

AUDCHF

Australian Dollar vs Swiss Frank

Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, $A, AU$ and $AU. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: Quarterly

AUDDKK

Australian Dollar vs Danish krone

Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, $A, AU$ and $AU. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly. Danish Krone is a national Danish currency. It is also used in Greenland and Faroe Islands. (ISO 4217 - DKK) Was first introduced in 1873. As of now, there are bills of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 Danish crones and coins of 50 øre 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 crones in circulation. Exchange rate regime From January 1999 Krone exchanged rate is pegged to euro at a rate of 7.46038:1 which should remain at this level till Euro will be put into circulation. Central Bank: Danmarks Nationalbank

AUDJPY

Australian Dollar vs Japanese Yen

Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, A$, AU$ and AU$. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

AUDNZD

Australian Dollar vs New Zealand Dollar

Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, $A, AU$ and $AU. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly. New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

AUDUSD

Australian Dollar vs USA Dollar

Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, $A, AU$ and $AU. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly. United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December.

CADCHF

Canadian Dollar vs Swiss Frank

Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency. Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: Quarterly.

CADJPY

Canadian Dollar vs Japanese Yen

Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency. Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

CHFJPY

Swiss Frank vs Japanese Yen

Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: Quarterly. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

EURAUD

Euro vs Australian Dollar

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, $A, AU$ and $AU. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly.

EURCAD

Euro vs Canadian Dollar

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency. Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

EURCHF

Euro vs Swiss Frank

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: Quarterly.

EURGBP

Euro vs Great Britain Pound

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England.

EURJPY

Euro vs Japanese Yen

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

EURNOK

Euro vs Norwegian Krone

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Norwegian Krone (or krone) is the official currency of Norway and its dependent territories. It is divided into 100 Øre. Exchange rate regime: Krone is a floating currency. Krone's rate has been fluctuating quite a lot over the past years, which can be explained by its dependability on oil prices.

EURNZD

Euro vs New Zealand Dollar

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

EURSEK

Euro vs Swedish krona

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Swedish Krona is the official currency in Sweden. (ISO 4217 - SEK). It is divided into 100 Øre. The title "krona" is originated from a scandinavian word which means "crown". The currency first appeared in 1873 when Scandinavian monetary union was formed by Sweden, Norway and Denmark. After the union fell apart, each country decided to keep the title but for their own currencies. Exchange rate: Swedish krone has been floating from 1992.

EURSGD

Euro vs Singapore dollar

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Singapore dollar is the official currency in Singapore (ISO 4217 - SGD, symbol - $ or S$). Singapore dollar is divided into 100 cents. SGD was inicially pegged to British pound at a rate of 60:7, but in 1970s it became linked to US dorrar which lasted for a short time. As of now, Singapre dollar rate is monitored by Monetary authority of Singapore and is given a certain freedom to float.

EURUSD

Euro vs USA Dollar

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange rate regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December.

EURHKD

Euro vs Hong Kong dollar

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. Hong Kong dollar (HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. According to Sino-British Joint Declaration, Hong Kong has the right to develop and implement independent monetary policies. Bills and coins are issued by the Government of Hong Kong and three local banks. Exchange rate regime As of the moment linked exchange rate system is implemented at a rate of 1USD = 7.75 - 7.85 HK$

EURZAR

Euro vs South African rand

Euro (currency sign - €, currency code - EUR) - the official currency of 17 countries of the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Estonia). The currency is also used in 9 countries, 7 of which are European. This means that euro is used by over 320 million people. In December 2006 Euro had the highest total volume of cash circulation in the world, outweighing US Dollar with about 610 billion of euro bills and coins in circulation. Euro was first introduced as an accounting currency in 1999 and from the 1st of January 2001 physical euro bills and coins entered into circulation. Euro replaced the previous European currency which was used from 1979 till 1998 - European Currency Unit (ECU) with 1:1 ratio. Euro is administered by European Central Bank in Frankfurt and the Eurosystem, which consists of central banks of Euro Union members. European Central Bank is an independent bank and has the sole right to set monetary policy in the Eurozone. Eurosystem prints, mints and distributes the physical currency into all states of the Eurozone. All members of the Euro Union have the right to enter the Eurozone if they meet the necessary requirements and entering Eurozone is the necessary requirement for all new members of the Euro Union. Every state in the Eurozone issues the bills and puts a corresponding letter before the serial number: Austria – N, Belgium – Z, Germany – X, Greece – Y, Ireland – T, Spain – V, Italy – S, Cyprus – G, Luxemburg – R, Malta – F, Netherlands – P, Portugal – M, Slovakia – E, Slovenia – H, Finland – L, France – U, Estonia – D. Euro as a reserve currency At the moment Euro is the second reserve currency after the US Dollar. After its introduction in 1999 Euro partially inherited the status of Deutsche Mark and French Franc as international reserve currencies. Former US Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that euro can substitute US Dollar as a main reverse currency. Exchange rate regime Euro exchange range regime is floating. Central Bank: ECB (European Central Bank). Monthly sessions. South African Rand (ISO 4217 — ZAR) is the official currency of South Africa. Rand is divided into 100 cents. It is a common currency of Common Monetary Area (South Africa, Swaziland and Namibia). The currency was put into circulation in 1961, when South Africa declared independence from Britain. Currency exchange regime South African Rand is a floating currency. ЦБ: Южноафриканский резервный банк. Заседание: N/A.

GBPAUD

Great Britain Pound vs Australian Dollar

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Australian Dollar is the official currency for The Commonwealth of Australia (including Christmas Islands, Keeling Islands, Norfolk Island) and independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Australian Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Most common abbreviations: A$, $A, AU$ and $AU. Australian Dollar is the sixth most traded currency in the world (anfter USD, JPY, GBP and CHF). Such popularity is caused by high interest rates in Australia and stability of the Australian economy and political system. Exchange rate regime Australian dollar is a floating currency. Central Banks: Reserve bank of Australia (RBA). Sessions: monthly.

GBPCAD

Great Britain Pound vs Canadian Dollar

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency. Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

GBPCHF

Great Britain Pound vs USA Dollar

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: Quarterly

GBPJPY

Great Britain Pound vs Japanese Yen

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

GBPNZD

Great Britain Pound vs New Zealand Dollar

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

GBPUSD

Great Britain Pound vs USA Dollar

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design.

GBPDKK

Great Britain Pound vs Danish krone

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Danish Krone is a national Danish currency. It is also used in Greenland and Faroe Islands. (ISO 4217 - DKK) Was first introduced in 1873. As of now, there are bills of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 Danish crones and coins of 50 øre 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 crones in circulation.
Exchange rate regime
From January 1999 Krone exchanged rate is pegged to euro at a rate of 7.46038:1 which should remain at this level till Euro will be put into circulation.
Central Bank: Danmarks Nationalbank

GBPNOK

Great Britain Pound vs Norwegian krone

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Norwegian Krone (or krone) is the official currency of Norway and its dependent territories. It is divided into 100 Øre. Exchange rate regime: Krone is a floating currency. Krone's rate has been fluctuating quite a lot over the past years, which can be explained by its dependability on oil prices.

GBPSEK

Great Britain Pound vs Swedish Krona

British Pound is a national currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and parallel currency in Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. It is also valid in Tristan da Cunha. British Pound is divided into 100 pennies. Currency symbol - £. Code ISO 4217 — GBP Sometimes an old abbreviation UKL (United Kingdom Libra) is used. There are bills of 5, 10, 20 and pounds and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 pound coins in circulation. Banks of some regions (three banks of Scotland, four banks in Northern Ireland) issue bills with own design. Exchange rate regime At the moment pound exchange rate regime is floating. The monetary policy is set by the Bank of England. Swedish Krona is the official currency in Sweden. (ISO 4217 - SEK). It is divided into 100 Øre. The title "krona" is originated from a scandinavian word which means "crown". The currency first appeared in 1873 when Scandinavian monetary union was formed by Sweden, Norway and Denmark. After the union fell apart, each country decided to keep the title but for their own currencies. Exchange rate: Swedish krone has been floating from 1992.

NZDCAD

New Zealand Dollar vs Canadian Dollar

New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency. Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

NZDCHF

New Zealand Dollar vs Swiss Frank

New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: Quarterly.

NZDJPY

New Zealand Dollar vs Japanese Yen

New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

NZDUSD

New Zealand Dollar vs USA Dollar

New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December.

USDCAD

USA Dollar vs Canadian Dollar

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Canadian dollar (ISO 4217 - CAD, symbol - $ or C$) is the official currency of Canada. Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents. In 2007 Canadian dollar had 7th place among the most traded world's currencies. CAD rate is mostly influenced by US dollar. Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Euro have a little influence on the Canadian currency. Exchange rate regime Canadian dollar is a floating currency. Central bank: Bank of Canada (BOC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December.

USDCHF

USA Dollar vs Swiss Frank

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: every quarter.

USDDKK

USA Dollar vs Danish Krone

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December.
Danish Krone is a national Danish currency. It is also used in Greenland and Faroe Islands. (ISO 4217 - DKK) Was first introduced in 1873. As of now, there are bills of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 Danish crones and coins of 50 øre 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 crones in circulation.
Exchange rate regime
From January 1999 Krone exchanged rate is pegged to euro at a rate of 7.46038:1 which should remain at this level till Euro will be put into circulation.Central Bank: Danmarks Nationalbank

USDCHF

USA Dollar vs Swiss Frank

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Swiss Franc (ISO 4217 CHF or 756) is the official currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Swiss Franc bills are issued by Central Bank of Switzerland (Swiss National Bank) while coins are issued by the federal mint (Swissmint). In Europe only Swiss currency is called “Franc”. There are four official languages in Switzerland and the title of the currency on each of them differs: Franken (in German) Franc (in French and Rhaeto-Romance languages), Franco (in Italian). 1/100 of Franc is called Rappen (in German), Centime (In French), Centesimo (In Italian) and Rap (in Rhaeto-Romance). Exchange rate regime Swiss Franc is a floating currency. From the second half of 2003 EURCHF stabilized at 1.55, so like Euro, Swiss Franc rose and then fell to USD. In September 2011 Swiss National Bank stated that they wouldn’t let Swiss Franc to raise more than 1.2 Franc per 1 Euro. Central Bank: Swiss National Bank (SNB). Sessions: every quarter.

USDHKD

USA Dollar vs Hong Kong Dollar

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code –USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Hong Kong dollar (HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. According to Sino-British Joint Declaration, Hong Kong has the right to develop and implement independent monetary policies. Bills and coins are issued by the Government of Hong Kong and three local banks. Exchange rate regime As of the moment linked exchange rate system is implemented at a rate of 1USD = 7.75 - 7.85 HK$

USDJPY

USA Dollar vs Japanese Yen

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Japanese yen Japan is one of the most developed economies in the world. The country has the third largest economy by GDP and industrial production after USA and China. Japan is the leader in scientific research (electronics and robotics). Transportation engineering, including the automotive, shipbuilding are also highly developed there. Japan has 15% of the global fish catch. The government implements modern agricultural subsidy programs, but 55% of the food is imported. There is a network of high-speed railways, 'Shinkansen' and highways. Japan exports transportation vehicles, cars, motorcycles, electronics, chemicals. Japan imports: machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw materials. At the end of the twentieth century Japan's reserves in foreign currencies sored. After the Government removed the capital controls Japan quickly became an international lender. Its share in international loans rose from 5% in 1980 to 20.6% in 1990. Most of Japan’s share of investments is concentrated in the United States (42.2%), Asia (24.2%), Western Europe (15.3%), and Latin America (9.3%) Central Bank: The Bank of Japan (BOJ). Sessions: monthly.

USDNOK

USA Dollar vs Norwegien Krone

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Norwegian Krone (or krone) is the official currency of Norway and its dependent territories. It is divided into 100 Øre. Exchange rate regime: Krone is a floating currency. Krone's rate has been fluctuating quite a lot over the past years, which can be explained by its dependability on oil prices.

USDSEK

USA Dollar vs Swedish Krona

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USDSGD

USA Dollar vs Singapore dollar

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code –USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Singapore dollar is the official currency in Singapore (ISO 4217 - SGD, symbol - $ or S$). Singapore dollar is divided into 100 cents. SGD was inicially pegged to British pound at a rate of 60:7, but in 1970s it became linked to US dorrar which lasted for a short time. As of now, Singapre dollar rate is monitored by Monetary authority of Singapore and is given a certain freedom to float.

USDMXN

USA Dollar vs Mexican peso

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. Mexican Peso (code - MSN, sign - $) is the official Mexican currency. It is divided into 100 centavos. As of now there are bills of 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 pesos and coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 pesos and 5, 10, 20 and 50 centavos in circulation. Exchange rate regime Mexican Peso is a floating currency.

>USDZAR

USA Dollar vs South African Rand

United States Dollar is the currency of the United States of America and the main reserve currency in the world. Dollar is divided into 100 cents. Currency sign - $, Currency code – USD. Dollar bills and coins are issued by the Federal Reserve System. US dollar is also an official currency in some other countries (for example Salvador and Marshall Islands). US dollar is a global currency. For the last 10 years more than 50% of the world’s foreign-exchange reserves have been held in US dollars. In 2003-2008 USD exchange rate and its status as a global reserve currency showed slight decrease, partially because of the Euro influence on the world’s financial markets. From the second part of 2008 due to global crisis USD exchange rate rose significantly as it was still considered as one of the most liquid investments. However, from the first half of 2009 the rate started decreasing due to increased emission of the currency aimed to fight the crisis and a very high national debt (more than 14 trillion dollars). Some researchers think that the high liquidity of the currency may be one of the negative factors for the US, as it stimulates high demand and leads to overvaluation, which puts national US manufacturers not in a good position in terms of marketability. This also leads to trade deficit and national debt increase. Central Bank: Federal Reserve System (FOMC). Sessions: January, March, April, June, August, September, October, December. South African Rand (ISO 4217 — ZAR) is the official currency of South Africa. Rand is divided into 100 cents. It is a common currency of Common Monetary Area (South Africa, Swaziland and Namibia). The currency was put into circulation in 1961, when South Africa declared independence from Britain. Currency exchange regime South African Rand is a floating currency. ЦБ: Южноафриканский резервный банк. Заседание: N/A.

NZDSGD

New Zealand Dollar vs Singapore Dollar

New Zealand dollar is the official currency used in New Zealand, Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency. Official symbol - NZ$. NZ$1 = 100 cents. NZD substituted New Zealand Pound in 1967. Exchange rate regime New Zealand dollar is a floating currency. Central Bank: Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ). Sessions: January, March, April, June, July, September, October, December. Singapore dollar is the official currency in Singapore (ISO 4217 - SGD, symbol - $ or S$). Singapore dollar is divided into 100 cents. SGD was inicially pegged to British pound at a rate of 60:7, but in 1970s it became linked to US dorrar which lasted for a short time. As of now, Singapre dollar rate is monitored by Monetary authority of Singapore and is given a certain freedom to float.

MARKETS

FTSE (UK100)

FTSE is a futures contract for the British Index FTSE 100. Its full title is FTSE 100 INDEX FUTURE. Contract symbol – Z. Delivery months for the contracts – H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). Usually, three contracts with the closest delivery months are traded simultaneously. Each contract expires on the third Friday of the delivery month. Trades for the latest contract stop immediately after 11:15 CET right after the cost of the index upon the expiry date is identified. If the third Friday of the Delivery month is a holiday, then the contract expires on the last working day before the third Friday. The value of a futures contract for FTSE 100 is calculated as following: £10 multiplied by the index quote at the moment. The quotes are measured in ticks. 1 tick is 0.5 which equals £5. FTSE represents stocks of 100 major British companies that are listed on London Stock Exchange. The index value is calculated by FTSE Group which is owned by Financial Times and London Stock Exchange. FTSE 100 is a weighted average of stocks of 100 companies with the largest capitalization which are traded on LSE. Total capitalization of the companies is 80% of the LSE capitalization.

NASDAQ-100

Futures mini-contract on NASDAQ-100. Delivery months for the contracts – H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). The last trading day is a working day before the day the final value of the index is determined. It is usually the third Thursday of the Delivery month. The index value of calculated as follows: $20 multiplied by the quote effective at the moment. The quotes are measured in ticks. 1 tick is 0.25 which equals $5 for 1 contract. Day price limits: 5% price limit up and down before the NASDAQ opening. After the opening the limit is for 30% price limit down only. The percentage is calculated based on the index value on the first day of the current quarter. Nasdaq 100 (or National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation) consists of stocks of 100 American and International non-financial companies traded on Nasdaq Stock Exchange. Initially, the main criterion for getting into the top ranks of the index was the company’s market capitalization. But since December 1998 capitalization value of each company has to be multiplied by an index which is reviewed on a quarterly basis. The stock exchange is owned by American company Nasdaq OMX Group. Apart from NASDAQ is owns 8 European stock exchanges. At the moment shares of more than 3200 companies are traded on NASDAQ. You can find our more abount NASDAQ, including the list of the companies here .

AEX

AEX - AEX Index Futures The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). At the same time, three contracts with the next months of expiration are traded on the exchange. Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. Trading on the nearest contract is terminated as soon as possible after 16:00 CET immediately after determining the value of the index at the time of expiration. If the third delivery Friday falls on a non-business day, the last trading day of the futures contract is usually the last business day preceding the third Friday.The size of the futures contract for the AEX stock index is calculated using the formula 200 €, multiplied by the index value (quotation) at a given time. Quotations are indicated in index items. 1 tick is equal to 0.05 index point and costs 10.00 €. The AEX index (derived from the English Amsterdam Exchange index) is the most important stock index in the Netherlands. The index covers the 25 largest Dutch companies whose shares are traded on the Euronext Amsterdam exchange. The list of companies is revised twice a year - in March and September. AEX is calculated as the average arithmetic capitalization-weighted value of share prices, with capitalization taken into account in proportion to the number of shares in free float. More information about the AEX index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts

DX

DX - U.S. dollar index futures. Months of delivery for which the contract is concluded - H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). Each contract ends on the third Monday of the month of expiry. If the third Monday of the delivery month falls on a non-business day, the last day of futures contract trading is usually the last business day preceding the third Monday. The size of the futures mini-contract for the US dollar index is calculated using the formula $1000 multiplied by the index quotation. Futures contract quotes are listed in the index items. 1 tick is equal to 0.005 index points and costs $5.00. The base asset is the USDX index. The US Dollar Index (USDX), introduced in 1973 by the Federal Reserve Bank in the United States, is a comparison of the six major world currencies with the US dollar. These six index currencies are Euro (EUR), JPY, GBP, Canadian Dollar (CAD), Swedish Krona (SEK) and Swiss Franc (CHF). The change in the exchange rate of each of these currencies affects the value of the US dollar index, which is constantly updated on working days (on weekends and holidays, trading in the forex currency market is not carried out). The share of each of the 6 currencies in the index is as follows: Euro (EUR) 57.6%, Japanese yen (JPY) 13.6%, British pound (GBP) 11.9%, Canadian dollar (CAD) 9.1%, Swedish krona (SEK) 4.2%, Swiss franc (CHF) 3.6%. In financial circles, the US dollar index is usually referred to as the abbreviation "USDX," which is its ticker in news feeds of exchange reports. This index may best describe the dynamics of the US dollar relative to major currencies. The dynamics of the US dollar index are monitored daily by financial experts, currency analysts, governments and currency traders. Its importance is especially important in times of financial stress and crisis, since the USDX is an indicator of how healthy or weak the global economy remains. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

S&P 500<

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FCE (FR40)

FCE - CAC Index Futures 4 The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). At the same time, three contracts with the next months of expiration are traded on the exchange Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. Trading on the nearest contract is terminated as soon as possible after 16:00 CET, immediately after determining the value of the index at the time of expiration. If the third delivery Friday falls on a non-business day, the last trading day of the futures contract is usually the last business day preceding the third Friday The size of the futures contract for the CAC 40 stock index is calculated using the formula €10 multiplied by the index value (quotation) at a given time. Quotations are indicated in index items. 1 tick is equal to 0.5 units and costs €5.00 The underlying asset is the CAC 40 stock index. CAC 40 (short for French Cotation Assistance en Continuu, Russian КЭК-40) is the most important stock index in France. The index is calculated as the arithmetic average weighted by capitalization of the share prices of the 40 largest companies that are traded on the Euronext Paris exchange The CAC 40 stock index is one of the main national indices of the pan-European Euronext exchange group, which, along with the Paris Exchange, includes the exchanges of Brussels, Lisbon and Amsterdam (each of which calculates its own national stock index). The initial value of the index - 1000 points - was established on December 31, 1987. Starting December 1, 2003, when calculating capitalization, only shares in free float are taken into account. The index is calculated every 30 seconds on the working days of the exchange from 9:00 to 17:30 Central European time. Along with the stock indices of other major European Union economies (such as the FTSE 100 or DAX), CAC40 is a fairly informative indicator of the state of affairs both in the French stock market and in the Eurozone economy as a whole. If you compare the CAC 40 index schedule with those of the Eurozone's other largest stock indices, you can not fail to note their similarities, primarily due to the high degree of integration of the French economy into the common economy of the European Union. More information about the CAC 40 index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

EVZ.INDEX CBOE EuroCurrency Volatility Index

The Cboe EuroCurrency Volatility IndexSM (EVZ) is a VIX®-style estimate of the expected 30-day volatility of the CurrencyShares Euro Trust (Ticker - FXE). Like VIX, EUVIX is calculated by interpolating between two weighted sums of option midquote values, in this case options on EVZ. The two sums essentially represent the expected variance of the Euro to Dollar exchange rate up to two option expiration dates that bracket a 30-day period of time. EVZ is obtained by annualizing the interpolated value, taking its square root and expressing the result in percentage points.

SXEP.INDEX STOXX Europe 600 Oil & Gas index.

The STOXX Europe 600, also called STOXX 600, SXXP, is a stock index of European stocks designed by STOXX Ltd. This index has a fixed number of 600 components representing large, mid and small capitalization companies among 17 European countries, covering approximately 90% of the free-float market capitalization of the European stock market (not limited to the Eurozone). The countries that make up the index are the United Kingdom (comprising around 21.5% of the index), France, Germany and Switzerland (accounting for around 16% of the index each)[1], as well as Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.[2] The STOXX Europe 600 was introduced in 1998. Its composition is reviewed four times a year, in March, June, September, December. The index is available in several currency (AUD, CAD, CHF, EUR, GBP, JPY, USD) and return (Price, Net Return, Gross Return) variant combinations. It is licensed to financial institutions to serve as underlying for a wide range of investment products such as exchange-traded funds (ETFs), futures, options, and structured products worldwide.

TOPIX.INDEX Topix Stock Index

Tokyo Stock Price Index (東証株価指数, Tōshō Kabuka shisū), commonly known as TOPIX, along with the Nikkei 225, is an important stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) in Japan, tracking all domestic companies of the exchange's First Section. It is calculated and published by the TSE. As of 1 February 2011, there are 1,669 companies listed on the First Section of the TSE, and the market value for the index was ¥197.4 trillion.[1] The index transitioned from a system where a company's weighting is based on the total number of shares outstanding to a weighting based on the number of shares available for trading (called the free float). This transition took place in three phases starting in October 2005 and was completed in June 2006. Although the change is a technicality, it had a significant effect on the weighting of many companies in the index, because many companies in Japan hold a significant number of shares of their business partners as a part of intricate business alliances, and such shares are no longer included in calculating the weight of companies in the index. TSE currently calculates and distributes TOPIX every second and further plans to launch a new High-Speed Index dissemination service provided at the millisecond level starting from February 28, 2011.

XAU.INDEX Philadelphia Gold/Silver index

The Philadelphia Gold and Silver Index is an index of thirty[1] precious metal mining companies that is traded on the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. The index is represented by the symbol "XAU", which may be a source of some confusion as this symbol is also used under the ISO 4217 currency standard to denote one troy ounce of gold. The Philadelphia Gold and Silver Index and the NYSE Arca Gold BUGS Index are the two most watched gold indices on the market.s

FDAX (DE30)

FDAX - DAX Index Futures. The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). At the same time, three contracts with the next months of expiration are traded on the exchange. Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. Trading on the nearest contract is terminated as soon as possible after 13:00 CET, immediately after determining the value of the index at the time of expiration. If the third delivery Friday falls on a non-business day, the last trading day of the futures contract is usually the last business day preceding the third Friday. The size of the DAX stock index futures contract is calculated using the formula €25 multiplied by the index value (quotation) at a given time. Quotations are indicated in index items. 1 tick is equal to 0.5 units and costs €12.50. The underlying asset is the DAX stock index. The DAX index (derived from German Deutscher Aktienindex) is the most important stock index in Germany. The index is calculated as the capitalization-weighted average of the share prices of the largest joint-stock companies in Germany (the capitalization is calculated only on the basis of shares in free circulation). The index also takes into account income received in the form of dividends on shares, assuming that dividends are reinvested in shares. Thus, the index reflects the total income on capital. DAX was created on July 1, 1988. Calculated by Deutsche Börse AG. When calculating DAX, share prices on the XETRA electronic exchange are used. The index is calculated on the working days of the exchange from 9:00 to 17:30 Central European time. After trading on the exchange, Deutsche Börse AG calculates the L-DAX index (Late DAX), which is an indicator of the development of the DAX index after the exchange closes. The calculation of L-DAX is made on the basis of share prices on the Frankfurt Exchange on the working days of the exchange from 17:30 to 20:00 Central European time. More information about the DAX index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

FESX (EU50)

FESX - DJ EURO STOXX 50 Index Futures The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). At the same time, three contracts with the next months of expiration are traded on the exchange. Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. Trading on the nearest contract is terminated as soon as possible after 12:00 CET, immediately after determining the value of the index at the time of expiration. If the third delivery Friday falls on a non-business day, the last trading day of the futures contract is usually the last business day preceding the third Friday. The size of the stock index futures contract DJ EURO STOXX 50 is calculated using the formula €10 multiplied by the index value (quotation) at a given time. Quotations are indicated in index items. 1 tick is equal to 1 unit and costs €10.00. The underlying asset is the Dow Jones EURO STOXX 50 stock index. The Dow Jones EURO STOXX 50 index is a capitalization-weighted index that includes shares of 50 major European blue chip companies operating in the eurozone. All of them are selected from a variety of companies included in the 18 Dow Jones EURO STOXX Supersector indices, whose participants are ranked by the size of the market capitalization and included in the Dow Jones EURO STOXX 50 index. Shares of the 40 companies with the largest market capitalization are automatically included in the Dow Jones EURO STOXX 50 index. The index then includes companies that have special conditions. And after that, the index includes shares of companies that occupy a position between 41 and 60 until a list of 50 companies is formed. The list of companies included in the Dow Jones EURO STOXX 50 index is revised annually, and weights are recalculated quarterly to take into account changes in the market capitalization of companies. The methodology and design of the EURO STOXX 50 index is very similar to the Dow Jones STOXX 50 index, except that only companies that have completely switched to the single European currency Euro can be included in EURO STOXX 50. Thus, companies located in the UK cannot be included in this index, which also applies to large transnational corporations whose shares are traded on the London Stock Exchange (LSE). More information about the DJ EURO STOXX 50 index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

FSMI

FSMI - Фьючерс на индекс SMI. Месяца поставки, на которые заключаются контракт – H (март), M (июнь) , U (сентябрь), Z (декабрь). Одновременно на бирже торгуются три контракта с ближайшими месяцами истечения. Каждый контракт заканчивается в третью пятницу месяца экспирации. Торги по ближайшему контракту прекращаются по возможности немедленно после 09:00 CET, сразу после определения стоимости индекса на момент истечения срока действия. Если третья пятница поставки выпадает на нерабочий день, последним днем торговли фьючерсным контрактом обычно считается последний рабочий день, предшествующий третьей пятнице. Размер фьючерсного контракта на фондовый индекс SMI рассчитывается по формуле 10 CHF, умноженные на величину (котировку) индекса на данный момент времени. Котировки указываются в индексных пунктах. 1 тик равен 1 еденице и стоит 10.00 CHF. Базовым активом является фондовый индекс SMI. Индекс SMI - англ. Swiss Market Index (SMI) является индексом рынка акций «голубых фишек» Швейцарии, что делает его самым важным в стране. Он состоит из двадцати самых больших и ликвидных акций компаний большой и средней капитализации, входящих в индекс SPI (англ. Swiss Performance Index). Как и любой другой чисто ценовой индекс, SMI не учитывает выплаты и размер дивидендов. Для этих целей был разработан индекс SMIC (англ. SMI Cum Dividend), методика расчета которого принимает во внимание выплату дивидендов. Swiss Market Index был запущен 30 июня 1988 с базовым значением 1500 пунктов, при этом его компоненты пересматриваются один раз в год. Вычисление значения индекса происходит в режиме реальном времени: как только происходит новая операция по любой ценной бумаге, входящей в индекс SMI, обновленное значения индекса мгновенно пересчитывается и отображается. Ценные бумаги, входящие в индекс SMI, представляют более 90% всей рыночной капитализации, а также около 90%-ов от объема торгов акциями всех швейцарских и лихтенштейнских компаний, включенных в листинг на SIX Swiss Exchange. Поскольку Swiss Market Index фактически отражает весь швейцарский фондовый рынок, он используется в качестве базового индекса для многочисленных производных финансовых инструментов (деривативов), таких как опционы, фьючерсы и индексные фонды (например, биржевые фонды). Чтобы акции компании были включены в индекс SMI, она должна соответствовать строгим требованиям относительно ликвидности и рыночной капитализации. С одной стороны, они должно обеспечивать, по крайней мере, 50% от средней ликвидности существующих компонентов индекса SPI, а с другой, иметь общую рыночную капитализацию акций «фри флоат» не менее 0,45% от общей рыночной капитализации SPI. Кроме того объем торгов и рыночная капитализация являются определяющими факторами при проведении ежеквартального ранжирования. Компоненты, входящие в состав индекса, ежегодно пересматриваются в третью пятницу сентября. Подробнее о индексе SMI, включая список входящих в него компаний, можно узнать по адресу.Инструмент торгуется на счетах Standard, Swap Free.

FSTX (STOXX50.INDEX)

FSTX - DJ Index Futures STOXX 50.The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H(March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). At the same time,three contracts with the next months of expiration are traded on the exchange.Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry.Trading on the nearest contract is terminated as soon as possible after 12:00 CET, immediately after determining the value of the index at the time of expiration. If the third delivery Friday falls on a non-business day, the last trading day of the futures contract is usually the last business day preceding the third Friday.The size of the futures contract for the stock index DJ STOXX 50 is calculated using the formula €10 multiplied by the index value (quotation) at a given time. Quotations are indicated in index items.1 tick is equal to 1 unit and costs €10.00.The underlying asset is the Dow Jones STOXX 50 stock index.The Dow Jones STOXX 50 index is a stock index representing the 50 largest companies in Europe, based on their market capitalization.The shares that are included in this index are selected from the shares included in the Dow Jones STOXX 600 Supersector index 18,covering approximately the capitalization 95% of major stock exchanges in 18 European countries. From these indices, the largest participants are selected, which are included in the general list. Then their market capitalization is estimated, on the basis of which the participants in the STOXX 50 index are selected.The Dow Jones STOXX 50 index has been calculated since 1998. The list of shares of companies included in the index is revised annually. At the same time, weights are adjusted quarterly to take into account proportional changes in the market capitalization of the base companies.The STOXX Dow Jones 50 index is almost completely similar to the Dow Jones EURO STOXX 50 index in terms of methodology and structure, except that the list of its participants is not limited to companies that have completely switched to a single European currency.More information about the DJ STOXX 50 index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at.The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

Dow Jones

Dow Jones - Dow Jones Stock Index Futures Mini Contract. The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. If the third delivery Friday falls on a non-business day, the last trading day of the futures contract is usually the last business day preceding the third Friday. The size of the futures mini-contract for the DJIA index is calculated using the formula $5 multiplied by the index quotation. Quotations of futures mini-contract index DJIA are indicated in index points. 1 tick is 1 (one) and costs $5. The base asset is the American stock index DJIA (Dow Jones Industrial Average). The DJIA (Dow Jones Industrial Average) is the oldest existing U.S. market index. This index was created to track the development of the industrial component of American stock markets. The index covers the 30 largest US companies. The prefix "industrial" is a tribute to history - currently many of the companies included in the index do not belong to this industry. Initially, the index was calculated as the arithmetic average of the share prices of the covered companies. Now a scalable average is used for calculation - the sum of prices is divided by a divider, which changes whenever the shares included in the index are crushed (split) or merged (consolidated). This allows you to maintain the comparability of the index taking into account changes in the internal structure of its shares. More information about the DJIA index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

S&P MIDCAP 400

Futures mini-contract for the S & P MIDCAP 400 x stock index. The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. The size of the futures mini-contract for the S & P MIDCAP 400 stock index is calculated using the formula - $100 multiplied by the index quotation at a given time. Quotations are indicated in index items. 1 tick is 0.1 (one tenth) and costs $10. The base asset of the E-mini S & P MIDCAP 400 is the S & P MIDCAP 400 stock index. This is an index calculated by Standard & Poor's for mid-capitalization companies. Today, medium-sized companies are recognized as an independent class of fixed assets, with risk/profit profiles significantly different from those of large and small companies. The S & P MidCap 400 accounts for approximately 7% of the US securities market, it is also included in the series of US S & P U.S. indices, which can be used as components in the formation of the investment portfolio. The term MidCap means 'average capitalization' and was introduced by the Standard & Poor's Index Committee in the early 1990s. The S & P MidCap 400 index appeared in 1991 - at that time, the average market capitalization was approximately $650 million. Currently, 'medium' are called companies with a market capitalization of about $3 billion. Shares of medium capitalization companies are a special class of shares representing companies that have emerged from the category of small capitalization enterprises, that is, from the category of high risk. S & P MidCap 400 companies increased their level of capitalization, improved financial performance and management so much that their activities began to affect the economic cycles of the relevant industries. The Index Committee is known to seek to minimize company replacements in both indices. However, if a company in the S & P MidCap 400 increases market capitalization to $7-10bn, The committee removes it from the index at the earliest opportunity and includes it in the S & P 500. However, before getting into the S & P 500, the company must show that it is able to keep the capitalization level at at least $7-10 billion. A quick price jump is not sufficient reason to transfer the company to the S & P 500. The S & P MidCap 400 includes a huge number of companies from the utilities and banking sectors, which are hardly destined to become market giants. The Committee's research has shown that many banks and utilities are inherently incapable of growth. Thus, a strictly limited number of banks and utilities can enter the index. The task of the creators of S & P MidCap 400 is to present in their list several representatives of these sectors that differ in location in the country. These sectors cannot compete by weight with fast-growing industries such as the high technology sector. The MidCap and S & P small-cap indices are predominantly indexes of underestimated companies. Shares of such companies are more profitable than those included in the S & P 500. Meanwhile, there are often years when S & P MidCap 400 revenues grow faster than the S & P500. Assessment of income of S&P MidCap 400 for the next five years also exceeds similar indicators of S&P 500. More information about the S & P MIDCAP 400 index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts

TF (RUT.INDEX)<

T F - Russell 2000 Stock Index Futures Mini Contract. The months of delivery for which the contract is concluded are H (March), M (June), U (September), Z (December). Each contract ends on the third Friday of the month of expiry. The size of the futures mini-contract for the Russell 2000 stock index is calculated using the formula: $100 multiplied by the index value (quotation) at a given time. The minimum price change or 1 tick is 0.1 and costs $10. The base asset of the E-mini Russell 2000 is the Russell 2000 stock index. The Russell 2000 index reflects the dynamics of 2 thousand second-tier companies located at the bottom of the list of 3 thousand largest public companies whose shares are included in the quotation lists of American exchanges. The Russell 2000 index is the most famous and most cited indicator of the American stock market for low-capitalization companies. The capitalization of the companies included in the index is approximately 8% of the total capitalization of the investment-affordable American stock market. Shares of the largest company in the Russell 2000 index are worth about $672 million. The Russell 2000 index is the most popular criterion for market prices of small companies. More information about the Russell 2000 index, including a list of its member companies, can be found at http://www.russell.com The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

ADI.INDEX Abu Dhabi General Index

The ADX General Index is a free float market capitalization weighted index of stocks listed on the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange. For an equity to be a member of the index it must have five trading days since it was listed. The index was started with a base value of 1000.

S&P MIDCAP 400AXAT.INDEX S&P Australia 200 Index

The S&P/ASX 200 index is a market-capitalization weighted and float-adjusted stock market index of stocks listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. The index is maintained by Standard & Poor's and is considered the benchmark for Australian equity performance. It is based on the 200 largest ASX listed stocks, which together account for about 82% (as at March 2017) of Australia's sharemarket capitalisation.[1] The ASX 200 was started on 31 March 2000 with a value of 3133.3,[2] equal to the value of the All Ordinaries at that date. The ASX 200 reached 6,000 points for the first time on Thursday 15 February 2007. [3] On 22 December 2017, the ASX 200 was 6,069.[4] The ASX 200 crossed the 7,000 points level for the first time on 16 January 2020. [5]

DJI.INDEX Dow Jones Industrial Average

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Dow Jones, or simply the Dow (/ˈdaʊ/), is a stock market index that measures the stock performance of 30 large companies listed on stock exchanges in the United States. Although it is one of the most commonly followed equity indices, many consider the Dow to be an inadequate representation of the overall U.S. stock market compared to broader market indices such as the S&P 500 Index or Russell 3000 because it includes only 30 large cap companies, is not weighted by market capitalization, and does not use a weighted arithmetic mean.[4][5][6][7] The value of the index is the sum of the stock prices of the companies included in the index, divided by a factor which is currently (as of September 2020) approximately 0.152. The factor is changed whenever a constituent company undergoes a stock split so that the value of the index is unaffected by the stock split. First calculated on May 26, 1896,[2] the index is the second-oldest among the U.S. market indices (after the Dow Jones Transportation Average). It was created by Charles Dow, the editor of The Wall Street Journal and the co-founder of Dow Jones & Company, and named after him and his business associate, statistician Edward Jones. The word industrial in the name of the index no longer reflects its composition: several of the constituent companies operate in sectors of the economy other than heavy industry. The index is maintained by S&P Dow Jones Indices, an entity majority-owned by S&P Global. Its components are selected by a committee. The ten components with the largest dividend yields are commonly referred to as the Dogs of the Dow. As with all stock prices, the prices of the constituent stocks and consequently the value of the index itself are affected by the performance of the respective companies as well as macroeconomic factors.

MARKETS

Gold

Price-affecting factors: At all times gold was considered as the most liquid investment. As a result, gold price usually rises in times of crisis. About Gold: Total volume of the gold ever produced is around 150 thousand tons.20% is in reserves, 55% is jewelry, 12% used for industrial needs and 16% used as investments. Major exporters: South Africa, USA, Australia, China and Russia. Major importers: Japan, Germany, USA, Italy, India, China, Egypt, and UAE.

Silver

About Silver:
Silver is used in jewlery production and electronics. 
Major exporters: Mexico, USA, Peru, Canada and Russia
Alternatives:

MARKETS

#AA

CFD contract for shares Alcoa (Aluminimum Company of America). One of the largest producers of Aluminium in the world.

#T

AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T) — One of the largest telecommunications companies. It is localed in Texas, US and is the second largest provider of mobile phone in the United States. The number of AT&T clients is around 150 million people. For a long time AT&T was a monopolist on communications market in the USA. In 1983-1983 due to the antitrust act, it established a separate company for local communications services and concentrated on long-distance. One of the created in 1995 companies, Southwest Bell Corporation (SBC Communications) bought AT$T for $16 bln and inherited AT&T brand. In March of 2006 AT&T bought Bell South for $67 bln. More detailed informaion about the AT&T shares is availabl here .

#BA

The Boeing Company is an American corporation that produces airplanes, satellites and rockets. The company’s headquarters are located in Chicago, US. The company is comprised of two main branches: Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Integrated Defense Systems. Apart from that, the corporation includes Boeing Capital Corporation, Shared Services Group and Boeing Engineering, Operations & Technology

#BAC

Bank of America provides banking and non - banking financial services and products. It was founded in 1904 and has a Market Capitalization of $163.2 bln. Bank of America has around 6000 branches in the US and 300 in other countries. The bank serves individual consumers, small and middle-market businesses and large corparations. According to the official data, the number of the clients it serves exceeds 48 million. The bank is among the leaders in wealth management companies and corporate and investment banking. The branches are located in more than 35 countries. Bank of America stocks are listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

#CSCO

Cisco is on of the leading IT companies that produces networking equipment. Also issues certificates to IT professionals that are trusted worldwide. In 2003 Cisco purchased Linksys company and more than 90% shares of Tandberg in 2009. It was the deal that allowed the company to position itself as world's leading in video coference calling services.According to Forbes, Cisco Market Capitalization is $139 bil

#C

Citigroup is a global financial services holding company providing individual and corporate clients with a broad range of financial products and sevices. The Citi global bank has about 200 million customer accounts and is present in more than 160 countries. The services provided by Citigroup include: consumer banking and credit, corporate and investment banking, securities brokerage, transaction services and wealth management. The company consists of two divisions: Citicorp, consisting of Citi's Global Consumer Banking businesses and Institutional Clients Group and Citi Holding, consisting of Brokerage and Asset Management, Local Consumer Lending and Special Asset Pool.Citigroup was founded on October 8, 1998 and is headquartered in New York.

#CAT

Caterpillar, Inc. Market Capitalization: $49.4 bln. (May 2015) Caterpillar, Inc. is the world's leading manifacturer of construction and minimg equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines and diesel-electric locomotives. The compnay provides technology for transportation, construction, forestry, energy, logistics, electronics, financing and electric power generation. Segments Caterpillar operates in:- Construction industries - Resource Industries - Power Systems -Financial Products -Other The comany was founded in 1925 and is headquartered in Peoria, IL, US.

#CVX

Chevron Corporatio Market Capitalization: $201 billion (may 2015 Chevron the world's second after Exxon Mobile is an integrated energy company. It provides administrative, financial, management and technology support to US and international subsidiaries that engage in fully integrated petroleum operations, chemicals operations, mining operations, power generation and energy services The company was founded in 1906 and is headquartered in San Ramon, California.

#IBM

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) Market Capitalization: $160.2 billion (May 2015) IBM is an international technology company that provides integrated solutions that leverage information technology and knowledge of business processes.

#HPQ

Hewlett-Packard Market Capitalization: $57.9 billion (May 2015). Hewlett-Packard Co. provides products, technologies, software, solutions and services to individual consumers, small and large businesses, including government, health and education sectors. The headquarters are locaed in Palo Alto (CA, USA). HP was founded in 1939 by two Stanford alumnees Willian Hewlett and David Packard as a company that produced testing and measuring equipment. HP now produces a wide variety of hi-tech products.

#HD

Home Depot Market Capitalization: $149.2 bln. (May 2015) Home Depot, Inc. is a retailer that sells building materials and home improvement products. Home depot has 2.144 retail stores in USA,Canada, Mexico and China. Home Depot was founded in 1978 and is headquartered in Atlanta, US.

#GE

General Electric Market Capitalization: $253.5 bln. (May 2015) General Electric Co. is a technology and financial services company that develops and manufactures products for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and utilization of electricity. The company was founded in 1878 by Thomas Edison and was initially called "Edison Electric Light".

#DIS

The Walt Disney Company Market Capitalization: $179.5 billion (May 2015) The Walt Disney Company operates through the following business segments: - Media Networks (broadcast television network, international and domestic cable networks, etc.) - Parks and Resorts (Operated Disney resorts in Florida and California) - Studio Entertament (Animated motion pictures) - Consumer Products (Licences trade titles to manifacturers around the world) - Interactive Media (Interactive media platforms) The Walt Disney Company is on of the components of Dow Jones Industrial Average.

#DD

DuPont Official website: www.dupont.com DuPont is an american chemical company, one of the largest in the world in this industry. The company was founded in 1802 as a gunpowder manufacturer. DuPont produces a wide rage of chemical materials and conducts numerous researched in the field. The company's specialists created many unique polymers and other materials, such as neylon, teflon, neoprene and others. DuPont is one of the components of Dow Jones Industrial Average.

#PFE

Pfizer Market Capitalization: $211.7 bln. Pfizer is a global biopharmaceutical company. It conducts various researches and produces medicines and vaccines and consumer healthcare products. It included in Dow Jones Industrial Average in 2004. Prizer is headquartered in New York and the main research centre is located in Groton, Ct, US. In 2008-2009 Pfizer underwent a reorganization. New operating segments were created: Primary Care, Specialty Care and Oncology, Established Products & Emerging markets and Consumer Healthcare.

#MSFT

Microsoft corp. Market Capitalization: $340.8 bln. (May 2015) Microsofit Corporation develops and markets software, services and hardware. It produces operating systems for personal computers, servers, phones and other intelligent devices, server applications for distributed comuting environments, productivity applications, business solution applications, desktop and server management tools, software development tools, video games and online advertising. It also designs and sells hardware, including the Xbox 360 gaming and entertainment console, Kinect for Xbox 360, Xbox 36o accessories and Microsoft PC hardware products. The company operates its business through five segments: Windows and Widows Live, Sever and Tools, Online Services, Microsoft Business and Entertainment and Devices.

#MMM

3M Company Market Capitalization: $105.1 Billion (May 2015) 3M Co. is a diversified technology companyserving customers and communities with innovative prosucts and services. The company produces automotive original equipment, electronics, appliance, paper and printing, packagind, food and beverage and construcetion, electrical products, power generators. The company was founded in 1902 in Minnesota, US. The company became famous after inventing transparent tape. Today 3M produces over 50 thousands different products.

#MCD

M'cDonald's Corporation Market Capitalization: $92.5 bil. (May 2015) M'cDonald's Corporation engages in the provision of food service retail. Its activities include franchise and operation of McDonald's restaurants globally. It operates through the following segments: United States, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa and Other Countries including Canada and Latin America. The company was founded in 1955 and is headquartered in Oak Brook, IL, US.

#KFT

Kraft Foods, Inc. Market Capitalization: $52.2 bil. (May 2015) Kraft Foods, Inc. manufactures and markets food and beverage products, including conveinient meals, refreshment beverages and coffee, cheese and other grocery products. The company operates through the following segments: Beverages (Maxwell House, Kool-Aid and others) Cheese (Kraft and Cracker Barrel natural cheese, Philadelphia cream cheese, etc.) Refrigerated meals (Oscar mayer cold cuts, etc.) Meals&Desserts (Kraft and Kraft Deluxe macaroni and cheese dinners, etc.) Echancers&Snack Nuts (Peanut butter, trail mixes, Kraft Mayo, etc.) Canada (Canadian brand offerings) Kraft Foods Group was founded in 1980 and is headquartered in Northfield, IL, US.

JPMorgan Chase

Market Capitalization: 225.5 bln. (May 2015) JPMorgan Chase & Co. is a financial holding company that provides financial and investment banking services. It offers a range of investment banking products and services in all major capital markets, including advising on corporate strategy and structure, capital-raising in equity and debt markets, sophisticated risk management, market-making in cash securities and derivative instruments, prime brokerage and research. It also offers investment banking, financial services for consumers, small business and commercial banking, financial transaction processing, asset management and private equity.

#INTC

Intel Corporation Market Capitalization: 147.2 bil (May 2015) Intel is an american corporation which produces and sells a wide range of electric devices and computer components. The company is headquartered in Santa-Clara, CA, US. The company was founded in 1968.

#PG

Procter & Gamble Co. Market Capitalization: $224.3 bln. Procter & Gamble is an american company, one of the leaders of the world's consumer products market. The company takes 22nd place in Fortune 500 and is one of the leading US companies by market capitalization. The company sells its products through mass marchanisers, drug stores, grocery stores and other retailers. The company operates through the following segments: Beauty, Grooming, Health Care, Fabric Care, Home Care and baby, Feminime and Family Care.

#XOM

Exxon Mobil Corporation Market Capitalization: $357.1 bil. (May 2015) Exxon Mobil explores, develops and distributes crude oil and natural gas. It also produces commodity petrochemicals and polyethylene and polypropylene plastics. It is the largest piblicly traded international oil and gas company and one of the world's largest integrated refiners, marketers of petroleum products and chamical manufacturers.

#WMT

Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Market Capitalization: $261.3 bil. (May 2015) Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. operates retail stores around the world. The company has three operating segments: Walmart U.S. (operates retail stores in all the 50 US states and Puerto Rico), Walmart International (operates in 27 countries) and Sam's club (consists of membership-only warehouse club).

#VZ

Verizon Communications Market Capitalization: 202.5 bln. (May 2015) Verizon Communications designs, builds and operates flobal networks, information systems and mobile technologies. It also provides coverged communications, information and evtertainment services over Americal's most advanced fiber-optic network and delivers integrated business solutions to customers. The company was founded in 1983 and is headquartered in New York, NY.

#UTX

United Technologies Corporation Market Capitalization: 107.1 bln. (May 2015) United Technologies Corp. provides products and services to the building systems and aerospace industries worldwide. The company operates through five business segmentsL Otis, UTC Clinate, Controls& Security, Pratt&Whitney, UTC Aerospace Systems and Sikorsky.

#TRV

The Travelers Companies Market Capitalization: 34.5 bln. (May 2015) The travelers Cos., Inc. is a holding compnay which provides a wide range of commercial and personal property and casualty insurance products and services to businesses, government units, associations and individuals. The company has three segments it operates through: - Business and International Insurance (property and casualty insurance) - Bond&Specialty Insurance (bond and insurance products and risk management services) - Personal Insurace (property and casualty insurance covering individual risks)

#AMAZON

Amazon Market Capitalization: $175.1 bln. (May 2015) Amazon.com is the largest online retailer. It provides its services to four primary customer sets: consumers, sellers, enterprises and content creators. It also provides online advertising. Amazon offers products in more than 40 categories including computers, software, toys, pet supplies and even wine. The company was founded in 1994 and is headquartered in Seattle, USA.

#APPLE

Apple, Inc. Market Capitalization: $741.8 bln. (May 2015) Apple designs, manufactures and markets mobile communication and media devices, personal computers, portable music players and sells related software, services, networking solutions and third-party digiral content and applications. Among the most known Apple products are iPhone, iPad, iPod, Man, Apple TV, iOS and OS X operating systems and iCoud. The company was founded in 1976 and is headqaurtered in Cuperino, CA.

#EBAY

eBay, Inc. Market Capitalization: $68.9 bln (May 2015). eBay provides online market places for for the sale of products and services and other commerce and ecommerce, platforms and online payment solutions to individual clients and businesses. The company operates through three main segments: Marketplaces (eBay.com, StubHub, Fashion, Motors and Half.com) Payments (PayPal) Enterprise (technology and marketing solutions for large retailers and brands) The company was founded in 1995 and is headquartered in San Jose, CA.

#FACEBOOK

Facebook, Inc. Market Capitalization: $231.6 bln. (May 2015) Facebook is the largest social network in the World. It was launched on the 4th of February of 2004 in a small room of Harvard Univaristy dormitory by Mark Zuckerberg and several of his best friends. For the first month it gathered about a half of Harvard students. The first Facebook investor was Piter Theil - one of PayPal creators. Thanks to his $500.000 Facebook reached 1 million of users in less than half a year. Along with Zukerberg, among Facebook shareholders are Sean Parker (Napster creator - 4%), Bill Gates - 1,3%, Jim Breyer - 11.4% and others.

#FORD

Ford Motor Market capitalization: $63.6 bln. Ford Motor Co. is an American multinational automaker is engaged in the manufacturing and distribution of automobiles. The company operates through 2 business sectors: Automotive and Financial Services. Automotive sector sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. The financial Services sector offers various automotive financing products through automotive dealers. It provides financing products, including retail installment sale contracts for new and used vehicles. The sector also offers wholesale loans to dealers to finance the purchase of vehicle inventory. The company is founded in 1903 and is based in Dearborn, Michigan. Visit the company's website

#GOOGLE

Google Market capitalization: $367.6 bln. Google, Inc. is an american company which is famous for the Google search engine, cloud solutions and adveritsing services. Google supports and develops a number of internet services and products and its primary source of income comes from advertising provided through AdWords (introduced in 2000). The main company's product is Google serch engine. Other services provided by the company include Gmail, Google+ and Google Buzz. Go to the company's website

#PEPSI

Pepsi Market Capitalization: $143 bln. PepsiCo, Inc. markets, sells and distributes a wide variety of convenient and enjoyable foods and beverages through its operations authorized botlers, contract manufacturers and other partners. Company's products are sold in more than 200 countries worldwide. In 2014 company's sales volume reached $66 billion. PepsiCo portfolio consists of 22 brands that each generates more than $1 billion in estimated annual retail sales. Go to the company's website

#TWITTER

Twitter Market Capitalization: $32,9 bln. Twitter, Inc. is a global platform for public self-expression and conversation in real time. It provides a network that connects users to people, information, ideas, opinions and news. The company's application provides social networking services and micro-blogging services through mobile devices and the Internet. It can also be used as a marketing tool for business. Twitter was founded by Jack Dorssey, Christopher Isaac Stone, Noah E. Glass, Jeremy LaTrasse, and Evan Williams on March 21, 2006 and is headquartered in San Francisco, CA.client.got_to_company_webiste

#YHOO

Yahoo Market Capitalization: $40.9 bln. Yahoo!, Inc. is an american company, offering one of the most popular serach engines worldwide. The company also provides a number of other services, including Yahoo Mail, Yahoo News, Yahoo Games and many others. The company first reseased its shares in 1996. In 2000 Yahoo launched Corporate Yahoo! project and bought taiwan-based business Kimo. Now Yahoo.com is one of the major search eniges in the world used by over 200 million people a month. Yahoo! was founded by Jerry Chih-Yan Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and is headquartered in Sunnyvale, CA. client.got_to_company_webiste

AAL

American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenue passenger mile. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with almost 6,800 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries.[9] American Airlines is a founding member of the Oneworld alliance, the third-largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.[10] American Airlines and American Eagle operate out of 10 hubs, with Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) being its largest. The airline handles more than 200 million passengers annually with an average of more than 500, 000 passengers daily. As of 2019, the company employs nearly 130,000 people.[11] American Airlines operates its primary and the largest Maintenance and Repair Operations (MRO) base in Tulsa in addition to the maintenance locations at its hubs.

#AAME

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#AAWW

We are a leading global provider of outsourced aircraft and aviation operating services. We operate the world's largest fleet of 747 freighters and provide customers a broad array of 747, 777, 767, 757 and 737 aircraft for domestic, regional and international cargo and passenger applications. We provide unique value to our customers by giving them access to highly reliable new production freighters that deliver the lowest unit cost in the marketplace combined with outsourced aircraft operating services that we believe lead the industry in terms of quality and global scale. Our customers include express delivery providers, e-commerce retailers, airlines, freight forwarders, the U.S. military and charter brokers. We provide global services with operations in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, North America and South America

#ZM

Zoom Video Communications, Inc. is a provider of video-first communication platform and Web conferencing services. It offers cloud-native platform, which unifies cloud video conferencing, online meetings, group messaging and a software-based conference room system, which enables users to easily experience Zoom Meetings in their physical meeting spaces. Its solution offers video, audio and screen-sharing experience across Windows, Mac, Linux, Android, BlackBerry, Zoom Rooms and H.323/Session Initiation Protocol room systems, such as Polycom and Cisco Tandberg. Its solutions include Meetings, Premium Audio, Business Instant Messaging (IM), Video Webinar, Zoom Rooms, H.323/SIP Connector and Developer Platform. Its cloud video conferencing solutions include full screen and gallery view, and dual stream for dual screen. Its security solutions include secure socket layer (SSL) encryption and role-based access control. It offers its solutions to education, finance and government sectors.

#YNDX

Yandex N.V. is an Internet and technology company, and operates Internet search engine. The Company's segments include Search and Portal, E-commerce, Taxi, Classifieds and Experimental businesses. The Company's Search and Portal segment offers a range of services in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, among which are search, location-based, personalized and mobile services, that enable the Company's users to find relevant and objective information to communicate and connect over the Internet, from both their desktops and mobile devices. The Company's search engine offers access to a range of information available online. The Company's Yandex.Market gives retailers a platform to reach customers seeking specific retailer, product or price information. As of December 31, 2016, Yandex.Taxi was operating in 46 cities across Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Ukraine. The Company's Classifieds business unit includes Auto.ru, Yandex.Realty, Yandex.Jobs and Yandex.Travel.

#ABIO

Some of the statements under 'Business,' 'Risk Factors,' 'Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations' and elsewhere in this Annual Report constitute forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: 'may,' 'will,' 'could,' 'would,' 'should,' 'expect,' 'intend,' 'plan,' 'anticipate,' 'believe,' 'estimate,' 'predict,' 'project,' 'potential,' 'continue,' 'ongoing' or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words

#ADBE

Founded in 1982, Adobe Inc. is one of the largest and most diversified software companies in the world. We offer a line of products and services used by creative professionals, marketers, knowledge workers, students, application developers, enterprises and consumers for creating, managing, delivering, measuring, optimizing, engaging and transacting with compelling content and experiences across personal computers, devices and media. We market our products and services directly to enterprise customers through our sales force and local field offices. We license our products to end users through app stores and our own website at www.adobe.com. We offer many of our products via a Software-as-a-Service ("SaaS") model or a managed services model (both of which are referred to as hosted or cloud-based) as well as through term subscription and pay-per-use models

#AFIN

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#AFLT

Aeroflot-Rossiyskiye Avialinii PAO or Aeroflot - Russian Airlines OJSC) is a Russia-based company involved in the provision of passenger and cargo air transportation services, both domestically and internationally. The Company and its subsidiaries also provide airline catering and insurance services. Its affiliates are mainly comprised of cargo-handling services, fuelling services and duty-free retail businesses. It operates a fleet of 128 liners to provide scheduled flights to 115 destinations to 52 countries around the world. The Company’s fleet includes mainly such aircrafts as: Airbus A330, 320, A321 and Sukhoi SuperJet-100. It operates through numerous branches and representative offices, located domestically and abroad, as well as several subsidiaries. On September 16, 2014, the Company established new wholly owned subsidiary Byudzhetny Perevozchik LLC.

#AMNB

American National Bankshares Inc. is a one-bank holding company organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1984. On September 1, 1984, the Company acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of American National Bank and Trust Company, a national banking association chartered in 1909 under the laws of the United States. American National Bank and Trust Company is the only banking subsidiary of the Company. As of December 31, 2019, the operations of the Company are conducted at twenty-six banking offices and one loan production office in Roanoke, Virginia. Through these offices, the Company serves its primary market area of south central Virginia and north central North Carolina. The Bank provides a full array of financial products and services, including commercial, mortgage, and consumer banking; trust and investment services; and insurance.

#AMSWA

Special Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements We believe that it is important to communicate our future expectations to our shareholders and to the public. This report contains forward-looking statements, including, in particular, statements about our goals, plans, objectives, beliefs, expectations and prospects, under the headings 'Item 1. Business' and 'Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations' in this report. You can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as 'anticipate,' 'intend,' 'plan,' 'continue,' 'could,' 'grow,' 'may,' 'potential,' 'predict,' 'strive,' 'will,' 'seek,' 'estimate,' 'believe,' 'expect,' and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes. Any forward-looking statements herein are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

#ANAT

American National Insurance Company was founded in 1905 and has always maintained its corporate headquarters in Galveston, Texas. Our core businesses are life insurance, annuities and property and casualty insurance. We also offer limited health insurance. We provide personalized service to approximately six million policyholders throughout the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. In addition, as of December 31, 2019, we have over $118 billion of life insurance in force. In this document, we refer to American National Insurance Company and its subsidiaries as "the Company", "we", "our", and "us". Our vision is to be a leading provider of financial products and services for current and future generations. For more than a century, we have maintained a conservative business approach and corporate culture.

#AXP

American Express Company, together with its subsidiaries, is a global services company. The Company's principal products and services are charge and credit card products, and travel-related services offered to consumers and businesses around the world. The Company's segments include the Global Consumer Services Group (GCSG), Global Merchant and Network Services (GMNS), and Global Commercial Services (GCS). The Company's range of products and services includes network services; merchant acquisition and processing, servicing and settlement, and point-of-sale marketing and information products and services for merchants; other fee services, including fraud prevention services and the design and operation of customer loyalty programs; expense management products and services, and stored value/prepaid products.

#BIIB

Biogen is a global biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and delivering worldwide innovative therapies for people living with serious neurological and neurodegenerative diseases as well as related therapeutic adjacencies. Our core growth areas include multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuroimmunology; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia; neuromuscular disorders, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease; and ophthalmology. We are also focused on discovering, developing and delivering worldwide innovative therapies in our emerging growth areas of immunology; neurocognitive disorders; acute neurology; and pain. In addition, we commercialize biosimilars of advanced biologics. We support our drug discovery and development efforts through the commitment of significant resources to discovery, research and development programs and business development opportunities.

#BLDP

Ballard Power Systems Inc is a Canada-based proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell products designer. The Company's principal business is the design, development, manufacture, sale and service of PEM fuel cell products for a variety of applications, focusing on its power product markets of Heavy-Duty Motive, Portable Power, Material Handling and Backup Power, as well as the delivery of Technology Solutions, including engineering services and the license and sale of its intellectual property portfolio and fundamental knowledge for a variety of fuel cell applications.

#BRK.A

Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is a holding company owning subsidiaries engaged in various business activities. Its segments include Insurance, such as GEICO, Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group, General Re Corporation and Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group; Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC, which is engaged in the operation of the railroad system; Berkshire Hathaway Energy, which includes regulated electric and gas utility; Manufacturing, which includes manufacturers of various products, including industrial, consumer and building products; McLane Company, which is engaged in the wholesale distribution of groceries and non-food items; Service and retailing, which includes providers of various services, including fractional aircraft ownership programs, aviation pilot training and various retailing businesses, and Finance and financial products, which includes manufactured housing and related consumer financing, transportation equipment, manufacturing and leasing, and furniture leasing

#BRK.B

Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is a holding company owning subsidiaries engaged in various business activities. Its segments include Insurance, such as GEICO, Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group, General Re Corporation and Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group; Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC, which is engaged in the operation of the railroad system; Berkshire Hathaway Energy, which includes regulated electric and gas utility; Manufacturing, which includes manufacturers of various products, including industrial, consumer and building products; McLane Company, which is engaged in the wholesale distribution of groceries and non-food items; Service and retailing, which includes providers of various services, including fractional aircraft ownership programs, aviation pilot training and various retailing businesses, and Finance and financial products, which includes manufactured housing and related consumer financing, transportation equipment, manufacturing and leasing, and furniture leasing

#FDX

FedEx Corporation (FedEx) provides a portfolio of transportation, e-commerce and business services through companies competing collectively, operating independently and managed collaboratively, under the FedEx brand. The Company's segments include FedEx Express, TNT Express, FedEx Ground, FedEx Freight and FedEx Services. The FedEx Express segment offers a range of the United States domestic and international shipping services for delivery of packages and freight. TNT Express segment collects, transports and delivers documents, parcels and freight on a day-definite or time-definite basis. The FedEx Ground segment provides business and residential money-back guaranteed ground package delivery services. The FedEx Freight segment offers less-than-truckload (LTL) freight services. The FedEx Services segment provides its other companies with sales, marketing, information technology, communications, customer service and other back-office support.

#GAZP

Gazprom PAO operates gas pipeline systems. The Company's principal activities include exploration and production of gas; transportation of gas; sales of gas within the Russian Federation and abroad; gas storage; production of crude oil and gas condensate; processing of oil, gas condensate and other hydrocarbons, and sales of refined products, and electric and heat energy generation and sales. The Company's segments include Production of gas, Transportation, Distribution of gas, Gas storage, Production of crude oil and gas condensate, Refining, Electric and heat energy generation and sales, and Other. The Production of gas segment is engaged in the exploration and production of gas. The Transportation segment is engaged in the transportation of gas. The Distribution of gas segment is engaged in the sales of gas within the Russian Federation and abroad. The Gas storage segment is engaged in the storage of extracted and purchased gas in underground gas storages.

#GILD

Gilead Sciences, Inc. is a research-based biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes medicines in areas of unmet medical need. The Company's portfolio of products and pipeline of investigational drugs includes treatments for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), liver diseases, cancer, inflammatory and respiratory diseases and cardiovascular conditions. Its products for HIV/AIDS patients include Descovy, Odefsey, Genvoya, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Truvada, Emtriva, Tybost and Vitekta. Its products for patients with liver diseases include Vemlidy, Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Viread and Hepsera. It offers Zydelig to patients with hematology/oncology diseases. Its products for patients with various cardiovascular diseases include Letairis, Ranexa and Lexiscan. Its products for various inflammation/respiratory diseases include Cayston and Tamiflu. It had operations in more than 30 countries, as of December 31, 2016.

#GM

General Motors Co designs, builds and sells trucks, crossovers, cars and automobile parts worldwide. The Company also provides automotive financing services through General Motors Financial Company, Inc. (GM Financial). GM North America (GMNA) and GM International (GMI) are its automotive segments. GMNA and GMI are meeting the demands of customers with vehicles developed, manufactured and/or marketed under the Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and GMC and Holden brands. Its brands offer luxury cars, crossovers, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and sedans. The Company’s Car-and Ride-Sharing Maven is a shared vehicle marketplace. Through its subsidiary, OnStar, LLC (OnStar), it provides connected safety, security and mobility solutions for retail and fleet customers. GM Cruise is its global segment engaged in the development and commercialization of autonomous vehicle technology.

#HAL

Halliburton Company provides services and products to the upstream oil and natural gas industry throughout the lifecycle of the reservoir, from locating hydrocarbons and managing geological data, to drilling and formation evaluation, well construction and completion, and optimizing production throughout the life of the field. It operates through two segments: the Completion and Production segment, and the Drilling and Evaluation segment. The Completion and Production segment delivers cementing, stimulation, intervention, pressure control, specialty chemicals, artificial lift and completion services. The Drilling and Evaluation segment provides field and reservoir modeling, drilling, evaluation and wellbore placement solutions that enable customers to model, measure, drill and optimize their well construction activities. It serves national and independent oil and natural gas companies. As of December 31, 2016, it had conducted business in approximately 70 countries around the world.

#HDB

HDFC Bank Limited (the Bank) is a holding company. The Bank offers a range of banking services covering commercial and investment banking on the wholesale side and transactional/branch banking on the retail side. It also offers financial services. The Bank's segments include Treasury, Retail banking, Wholesale banking and Other banking business. The Treasury segment primarily consists of net interest earnings from the Bank's investment portfolio, money market borrowing and lending, gains or losses on investment operations and on account of trading in foreign exchange and derivative contracts. The Retail Banking segment serves retail customers through a branch network and other delivery channels, as well as through alternative delivery channels. The Bank provides its corporate and institutional clients a range of commercial and transactional banking products. The Other banking business segment includes income from para banking activities.

#IBN

ICICI Bank Limited is a banking company. The Bank is engaged in providing a range of banking and financial services, including commercial banking, retail banking, project and corporate finance, working capital finance, insurance, venture capital and private equity, investment banking, broking and treasury products and services. The Bank's business segments are Retail banking, Wholesale banking, Treasury, Other banking, Life insurance, General insurance and Others. It has a network of approximately 18,210 branches and automated teller machines (ATMs). The Bank has approximately 110 Touch Banking branches across over 30 cities. Its international banking is focused on providing solutions for the international banking requirements of its Indian corporate clients and leveraging economic corridors between India and the rest of the world. The Bank caters to the financial needs of women entrepreneurs through its Self-Help Group (SHG) program as a part of its microfinance initiatives.0

#INDF Nifty India Financials ETF

A brief financial summary of Indus Finance Ltd as well as the most significant critical numbers from each of its financial reports. In addition, some financial ratios derived from these reports are featured. Users can opt to see 4 periods of either annual or quarterly information. Comment Guidelines

#INDY

The iShares India 50 ETF seeks to track the investment results of an index composed of 50 of the largest Indian equities. ... For iShares ETFs, Fidelity receives compensation from the ETF sponsor and/or its affiliates in connection with an exclusive long-term marketing program that includes promotion of iShares ETFs and inclusion of iShares funds in certain Fidelity Brokerage Services platforms and investment programs. Please note, this security will not be marginable for 30 days from the settlement date, at which time it will automatically become eligible for margin collateral.

#INFY

Infosys Limited is engaged in consulting, technology, outsourcing and next-generation services. The Company, along with its subsidiaries, provides business information technology services comprising application development and maintenance, independent validation, infrastructure management, engineering services comprising product engineering and life cycle solutions and business process management; consulting and systems integration services comprising consulting, enterprise solutions, systems integration and advanced technologies; products, business platforms and solutions to accelerate intellectual property-led innovation, including Finacle, its banking solution, and offerings in the areas of Analytics, Cloud and Digital Transformation. Its segments are Financial Services and Insurance (FSI), Manufacturing and Hi-tech (MFG & Hi-TECH), Energy & utilities, Communication and Services (ECS), Retail, Consumer packaged goods and Logistics (RCL), and Life Sciences and Healthcare (LSH).

#KO

The Coca-Cola Company is a beverage company. The Company owns or licenses and markets non-alcoholic beverage brands, primarily sparkling beverages and a range of still beverages, such as waters, flavored waters and enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, ready-to-drink teas and coffees, sports drinks, dairy and energy drinks. The Company's segments include Europe, Middle East and Africa; Latin America; North America; Asia Pacific; Bottling Investments, and Corporate. The Company owns and markets a range of non-alcoholic sparkling beverage brands, including Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. The Company owns or licenses and markets over 500 non-alcoholic beverage brands. The Company markets, manufactures and sells beverage concentrates, which are referred to as beverage bases, and syrups, including fountain syrups, and finished sparkling and still beverages.

#LKOH

NK Lukoil PAO is an energy company. The primary activities of LUKOIL and its subsidiaries are oil exploration, production, refining, marketing and distribution. Its segments include Exploration and Production; Refining, Marketing and Distribution, and Corporate and other. The Exploration and Production segment includes its exploration, development and production operations related to crude oil and gas. These activities are located within Russia, with additional activities in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the Middle East, Northern and Western Africa, Norway, Romania and Mexico. The Refining, Marketing and Distribution segment includes refining, petrochemical and transport operations, marketing and trading of crude oil, natural gas and refined products, generation, transportation and sales of electricity, heat and related services. The Corporate and other segment includes operations related to finance activities, production of diamonds and certain other activities.

#LMT

Lockheed Martin Corporation is a security and aerospace company. The Company operates through four segments. Aeronautics segment is engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration, sustainment, support and upgrade of military aircraft, including combat and air mobility aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and related technologies. Missiles and Fire Control segment provides air and missile defense systems; fire control systems; manned and unmanned ground vehicles, and energy management solutions. Rotary and Mission Systems segment provides design, manufacture, service and support for a range of military and civil helicopters; mission systems and sensors for rotary and fixed-wing aircraft; simulation and training services, and unmanned systems and technologies, among others. Space Systems segment is engaged in the research and development, design, engineering and production of satellites, strategic and defensive missile systems and space transportation systems.

#MCO

Moody's Corporation (Moody's) is a provider of credit ratings; credit, capital markets and economic related research, data and analytical tools; software solutions and related risk management services, quantitative credit risk measures, financial services training and certification services, and research and analytical services to financial institution customers. The Company operates in two segments: Moody's Investors Service (MIS) and Moody's Analytics (MA). The MIS segment includes its ratings operations. The MA segment develops a range of products and services that support financial analysis and risk management activities of institutional participants in financial markets. The MIS segment includes corporate finance group; structured finance group; financial institutions group; public, project and infrastructure finance, and MIS Other. The MA segment consists of three lines of business: data and analytics business, enterprise risk solutions and professional service.

#MGNT

Magnit PAO is a Russia-based holding company, which operates in the retail and distribution of consumer goods under the Magnit name. The Company’s activity is divided into one segment: retail sales of consumer goods. Its segment operates through four types of stores and in various states within the Russian Federation: Convenience stores; Hypermarkets; Magnit Family and Drogerie stores. The Company offers a wide range of products, such as food and tobacco products, clothes, shoes, as well as personal care, household cleaning products, cosmetics and perfumery goods. Additionally, the Company operates an in-house logistics system consisting over than 37 distribution centers, which are located in the Volga Federal region, Central Federal region, Southern Federal region, Urals region and in the North-West Federal region. It also operates as wholesale hypermarkets and pharmacies, including pharmacies integrated into drogerie stores.

#MRNA

Moderna, Inc. is engaged in transformative medicines based on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). It has created a platform to improve the underlying pharmaceutical properties of our mRNA medicines. Its platform consists of three areas: mRNA technologies, delivery technologies, and manufacturing processes. It is pursuing mRNA science to minimize the undesirable activation of the immune system by mRNA and to maximize the potency of mRNA once in the target cells. It has advanced in parallel a diverse development pipeline of 21 programs, of which 10 have entered clinical studies and another three have open INDs. Its therapeutics and vaccine development programs span infectious diseases, oncology, cardiovascular diseases, and rare genetic diseases. It has created six modalities prophylactic vaccines, cancer vaccines, intratumoral immmuno-oncology, localized regenerative therapeutics, systemic secreted therapeutics and systemic intracellular therapeutics.

#NVO

Novo Nordisk A/S is a global healthcare company engaged in diabetes care. The Company is also engaged in the discovery, development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products. The Company operates through two business segments: diabetes and obesity care, and biopharmaceuticals. The Company's diabetes and obesity care segment covers insulin, GLP-1, other protein-related products, such as glucagon, protein-related delivery systems and needles, and oral anti-diabetic drugs. The Company's biopharmaceuticals segment covers the therapy areas of hemophilia care, growth hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy. The Company also offers Saxenda product to treat obesity. It offers a range of products, including NovoLog/NovoRapid; NovoLog Mix/NovoMix; Prandin/NovoNorm; NovoSeven; Norditropin, and Vagifem. As of December 31, 2016, it marketed its products in over 180 countries. Its regional structure consists of two commercial units: North America and International Operations.

#PLUG

Plug Power Inc. is a provider of alternative energy technology focused on the design, development, commercialization and manufacture of hydrogen fuel cell systems used for the industrial off-road market and the stationary power market. The Company's product line includes GenKey, GenDrive, GenFuel, GenCare and ReliOn. GenKey offers solutions to customers transitioning their material handling vehicles to fuel cell power. GenDrive is a hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. It provides power to material handling vehicles. GenFuel is a hydrogen fueling delivery system. It is designed to allow customers to refuel its GenDrive units for productivity. GenCare is an ongoing maintenance program for both the GenDrive fuel cells and GenFuel products. ReliOn is a stationary fuel cell solution. It provides scalable, modular PEM fuel cell power to support the backup and grid-support power requirements of the telecommunications, transportation and utility sectors.

#PM

Philip Morris International Inc. is a holding company. The Company is engaged in the manufacture and sale of cigarettes, other tobacco products and other nicotine-containing products in markets outside of the United States. Its segments include European Union (EU); Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa (EEMA); Asia, and Latin America & Canada. The Company's portfolio of international and local brands is led by Marlboro. Its mid-price brands are L&M, Lark, Merit, Muratti and Philip Morris. Its other international brands include Bond Street, Chesterfield, Next and Red & White. The Company also owns various local cigarette brands, such as Dji Sam Soe, Sampoerna and U Mild in Indonesia; Champion, Fortune and Jackpot in the Philippines; Apollo-Soyuz and Optima in Russia; Morven Gold in Pakistan; Boston in Colombia; Belmont, Canadian Classics and Number 7 in Canada; f6 in Germany; Delicados in Mexico; Assos in Greece, and Petra in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

#RNG

RingCentral, Inc. is a provider of software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions for businesses to support modern communications. The Company's cloud-based business communications solutions provide a single user identity across multiple locations and devices, including smartphones, tablets, personal computers (PCs) and desk phones, and allow for communication across multiple channels, including high definition (HD) voice, video, short messaging service (SMS), messaging and collaboration, conferencing, online meetings, and fax. The Company's products include RingCentral Office, RingCentral Professional, RingCentral Fax, RingCentral Contact Center and RingCentral Glip. RingCentral Office is a multi-user, enterprise-grade communications solution. RingCentral Professional is an inbound call routing subscription with additional text and fax capabilities targeting smaller deployments, and RingCentral Fax is an Internet fax subscription that permits sending and receiving faxes over the Internet.

#RS

Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. is a metals service center company in North America (the United States and Canada). As of December 31, 2018, the Company's network of metals service centers operated over 300 locations in 39 states in the United States and in 12 other countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom). As of December 31, 2018, it provided metals processing services and distributes a range of more than 100,000 metal products, including alloy, aluminum, brass, copper, carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium and specialty steel products in a range of industries. Its various metals service centers process and distribute only specialty metals. It delivers a range of products from facilities located across the United States and Canada. It provides a range of processing services for its customers' and delivers products to fabricators, manufacturers and other end users.

#SBER

Sberbank Rossii PAO is a Russia-based company, which is primarily focused on the financial services industry. The Company operates as a commercial bank and provides services to individual and corporate clients. Its offerings for individual clients include deposits, credit cards issuing, money transfers, depositary cells, consumer loans, mortgages, utility payments, online banking, mutual funds, among others. The Company's corporate products portfolio includes corporate loans, asset management, payroll projects, leasing, online banking, cash and settlement services, among others. In addition, the Company offers a wide range of services to financial institutions, such as correspondent accounts, custody services, and interbank lending, among others.

#SIBN

SI-BONE, Inc. is focused on development of medical devices. The Company is engaged in the development, manufacture and commercialization of minimally invasive surgical devices for the treatment of patients with low back symptoms related to certain sacroiliac (SI) joint disorders. The Company offers iFuse Implant System, which provides a minimally invasive surgical solution to fuse the SI joint using patented triangular titanium implants that create an interference fit within the ilium and sacrum. The triangular implant shape, combined with the press fit insertion, is designed to provide fixation by minimizing rotational motion. The implants has a porous surface that provide an environment for bone ongrowth and ingrowth, facilitating long-term fusion of the joint. The iFuse Implant System is intended for sacroiliac fusion for conditions, including sacroiliac joint dysfunction that is a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis.

#SMSN

Samsung Electronics Co Ltd is Korea-based company principally engaged in the manufacture and distribution of electronic products. The Company operates its business through four segments. The Information Technology & Mobile Communications (IM) segment manufactures computers, handhold phones (HHPs), network systems, digital cameras and others. The Device Solutions (DS) segment provides semiconductor and display parts, including dynamic random access memories (DRAMs), flashes, thin film transistor-liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) and others. The Consumer Electronics (CE) segment manufactures color televisions (CTVs), monitors, printers, air conditioners, refrigerators, laundry machines and others. The Harman segment manufactures headunits, infotainment, telematics, speaker, among others. The Company distributes its products within domestic market and to overseas markets.

#TSLA

Tesla, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and sells electric vehicles and designs, manufactures, installs and sells solar energy generation and energy storage products. The Company's segments include automotive, and energy generation and storage. The automotive segment includes the design, development, manufacturing, sales and leasing of electric vehicles as well as sales of automotive regulatory credits. The energy generation and storage segment include the design, manufacture, installation, sales and leasing of solar energy generation and energy storage products, services related to its products, and sales of solar energy system incentives. Its automotive products include Model 3, Model Y, Model S and Model X. Model 3 is a four-door sedan. Model Y is a sport utility vehicle (SUV) built on the Model 3 platform. Model S is a four-door sedan. Model X is an SUV. Its energy storage products include Powerwall and Powerpack.

#TTM

Tata Motors Limited is an automobile company. The Company is engaged in manufacture of motor vehicles. The Company is engaged mainly in the business of automobile products consisting of all types of commercial and passenger vehicles, including financing of the vehicles sold by the Company. The Company's segments include automotive operations and all other operations. The Company's automotive segment operations include all activities relating to the development, design, manufacture, assembly and sale of vehicles, including vehicle financing, as well as sale of related parts and accessories. In the automotive segment, the Company manufactures and sells passenger cars, utility vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and medium and heavy commercial vehicles. The Company's all other operations segment mainly includes information technology (IT) services, and machine tools and factory automation services. The Company operates in over 160 countries across the world.

#VTBR

Bank VTB PAO is a Russia-based bank engaged in the provision of financial services. The Bank reports five segments: Corporate-Investment banking includes operations with corporate customers that are large business customers and banking financial institutions, as well as operations on the securities market; Mid-Corporate banking covers operations with medium business corporate customers; Retail business includes operations with individuals and small business corporate customers, and offers operations on Internet and mobile Point-of-Sale acquiring, plastic cards, payroll services and financial consulting, among others; Treasury comprises operations to manage liquidity, operations on financial and interbank markets, cash flow management and debit financing operation; as well as Other business includes two business: Construction and development involves operations undertaken by Company in the construction and development industry, and Other activities represent non-banking business.

#WEN

The Wendy's Company (Wendy) is engaged in the business of operating, developing and franchising a system of quick-service restaurants. The Company operates three segments: Wendy’s U.S., Wendy’s International and Global Real Estate & Development. Wendy’s U.S. includes the operation and franchising of Wendy’s restaurants in the United States. Wendy’s International includes the franchising of Wendy’s restaurants in countries and territories other than the United States. Global Real Estate & Development includes real estate activity for owned sites and sites leased from third parties, which are leased and/or subleased to franchisees, and also includes its share of the income of its Canadian restaurant real estate joint venture. It operates approximately 5,852 Wendy’s restaurants in the United States. Of these restaurants, over 357 were operated by the Company and 5,495 were operated by approximately 241 franchisees.

#WU

The Western Union Company (Western Union) is a provider of money movement and payment services. The Company operates through two segments: Consumer-to-Consumer and Business Solutions. The Company's Consumer-to-Consumer segment facilitates money transfers between two consumers, primarily through a network of third-party agents. The Company's multi-currency, real-time money transfer services are viewed by the Company as one interconnected network where a money transfer can be sent from one location to another, around the world. Western Union's Business Solutions segment facilitates payment and foreign exchange solutions, primarily cross-border, cross-currency transactions, for small and medium size enterprises and individuals. Business Solutions payment transactions are conducted through various channels, including the phone and via the Internet.

MARKETS

CRUDE OIL LIGHT SWEET

CRUDE OIL LIGHT SWEET - Crude Oil Futures Contract scope: 1,000 barrels (42,000 gallons) Months of contract: all (Jan. - Dec.) Exchange quotation: price in dollars per barrel Minimum price step: $0.01 per barrel ($10.00 per contract) Maximum price jump: $10.00 per session = trading stop (5 min) The last day of trading: the third working day before the 25th of the month, pre. to delivery Contract Type Supply Open Interest (May 09): 1.140,000 contracts Light Sweet Crude Oil futures are traded in New York. This brand is the most popular among all that are traded (Brent is traded in London on the ICE exchange; Urals in the Russian OTC market). Other energy sources are produced from crude oil - gasoline, fuel oil, diesel. Two barrels of gasoline or one barrel of fuel oil are produced from three barrels of crude oil. Fundamental factors Gasoline and fuel oil prices can influence the price of crude oil. Demand for oil is most active in the summer and winter months. In summer, this is due to the holiday season (increased demand for gasoline), and in winter with the need for additional heating (increased demand for fuel oil). Since both energy sources are produced from oil, its price could go up. The decisions of the OPEC Commission (OPEC) to increase or decrease oil production also significantly affect its price. Monitor the political situation in the territories involved in the production and storage of petroleum products, as well as the financial condition of consumer countries. Russia, Saudi Arabia and the United States are the largest oil producers. The difficult situation in the Middle East often leads to strong and unpredictable fluctuations in exchange prices around the world.Tool traded in Standard, Swap Fre accounts

BRN (LCO)

BRN BRENT CRUDE OIL - Crude Oil Futures. Exchange Ticker: BRN Contract scope: 1,000 barrels (42,000 gallons) Months of contract: all (Jan. - Dec.) Exchange quotation: price in dollars per barrel Minimum price step: $0.01 per barrel ($10.00 per contract) Brent crude oil is a light crude oil that is believed to come from the North Sea. Brent is the leading global price benchmark for Atlantic oil. This brand is used to estimate two thirds of world international trade for crude oil supplies. Oil that flows to Europe from Africa, the Middle East is estimated relative to the Brent brand. But it should be noted that the bulk of Europe today receives oil from Russia. Brand Brent contains approximately 0.37% sulfur and is suitable for the production of gasoline and medium distillers. Brent crude is traded in London on the ICE Intercontinental Exchange. Trading takes place over all calendar months within the next eight years. The contract size is 1000 barrels or about 132 tons, or 42,000 gallons.The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

WTI CRUDE OIL

WTI CRUDE OIL - Crude Light Oil Futures Contract scope: 1,000 barrels (42,000 gallons )/160 liters Months of contract: all (Jan. - Dec.) Exchange quotation: price in dollars per barrel Minimum price step: $0.01 per barrel ($10.00 per contract) Crude oil, also known as "hydrocarbon feedstock," is the best-selling commodity in the world. The main markets are Geneva, London, New York, Chicago and Singapore. Crude oil is used for various production needs as a basic raw material and energy source, so it is often called "black gold." Depending on the specific gravity/density and sulfur content, several grades of crude oil are isolated. The three main reference grades are: West Texas Intermediate (hereinafter - WTI), also known as Texas Light Sweet; Brent Crude, which is mined in the North Sea; Dubai Crude, which is mined in the United Arab Emirates. Other known mixtures/grades include OPEC basket (average, including several grades of oil), Malaysian crude oil (known as Tapis Crude) and Nigerian crude oil (known as Bonny Light). WTI grade oil is considered high-quality crude oil and is used mainly in the United States. WTI is also considered worldwide (like Brent) a benchmark for determining oil prices. WTI is light (low density) and low sulfur crude oil, which is ideal for the production of products such as low sulfur gasoline and low sulfur diesel fuel. WTI crude oil is mostly refined on Average West and northern Gulf Coast. WTI crude oil is lighter and has a lower sulfur content than other crude oil grades (e.g., Brent). Difference in oil quality compared to others varieties result in WTI being sold at a higher price. Usually, the price of oil is indicated per barrel (approximately 160 liters). The price of oil reported in the news usually denotes a spot price per barrel of WTI or Brent. The price per barrel of oil depends to a large extent on both grade and location. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

HEATING OIL

HEATING OIL - Fuel Oil Futures. The contract size is 42,000 gallons (one gallon is approximately 4.55 liters. 1 US gallon = 3.78541178 liters). Quotation in United States dollars and cents per gallon. Minimum price movement $0.0001 per gallon, equivalent to $4.2 per contract. Bidding takes place in all calendar months. Contract trading for the current month ends on the last trading day, before the start of the new contract month. Heating Oil is a liquid boiler fuel that is divided into fuel oil, for ships and fuel for production furnaces. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

GAS

GAS Gas Oil is one of the products of distillation of crude oil or products of its processing. Atmospheric Gas Oil is called light and vacuum heavy. Light Gas Oil is refined, and then used as an additive to diesel fuel, which is used for diesel SUVs, sea ships and locomotives. In addition, it is used as fuel for industrial machines and construction equipment.Heavy Gas Oil, due to its low viscosity, is able to improve the properties of boiler fuel, which is used mainly for heating industrial enterprises. In addition, Gas Oil can become a raw material for further processing in order to obtain gasoline. Contract Description The contract for Gas Oil is traded on the ICE Exchange in London. In the terminal grandcapital Trader trades CFD for this contract with the exchange symbol - GAS. The volume of one futures contract is 100 metric tons, which is equivalent to 118.35 cubic meters. Quotations are in United States dollars and cents for 100 metric tons. The minimum price fluctuation is 0.25 per ton and costs $25 per contract. Contract trading starts at 04:00 on Monday and ends at 02:00 on Saturday. Moscow time. Every day, bidding closes for a two-hour break. Gas Oil futures contracts are traded for 36 months, then quarterly for up to 48 months, after which up to 60 months are traded for 2 contracts per year. Trading is terminated 2 working days before the 14th of the month of delivery. In July 2008, the fuel market experienced a global change in the long-term trend from rising to downward, the cost of Gas Oil was no exception. Futures for this product continue to provide traders with a variety of profit opportunities. As a derivative of oil, Gas Oil correlates with its value, although many now believe that the cost of oil is secondary, since its price is determined by the demand for oil products. Peculiarities of trade Gas Oil contracts are flexible and have relatively high liquidity. They are considered a reference point for the formation of prices for distillates in Europe, as well as abroad. This contract provides traders with excellent opportunities for efficient trading. The most liquid contracts for Gas Oil are near-term contracts. However, there is also demand for long-distance contracts, since to a large extent the price of Gas Oil is formed under the influence of demand. Industrial companies and auto enterprises, as well as utilities, conclude long-term contracts for the supply of fuel oil, and not crude oil. The contract becomes more or less liquid 9 months before expiration. The contract for Gas Oil is relatively small from 19: 00- 20: 00 pm Moscow time to 16: 00-17: 00 pm the next day. The largest trading activity is observed with the opening of the pit session in New York. If you compare oil and Gas Oil schedules, you can say that the latter is a much-driven tool at short time intervals, a late instrument behind oil, which reaches intraday highs and lows 1-2 hours later than the oil contract. This provides an excellent opportunity for intraday arbitration between these instruments, moreover, oil can be used as an indicator for the Gas Oil market, but only inside the day. The dates of local highs and lows for these products usually coincide. The key factor in shaping the price of Gas Oil is the cost of oil. In addition, production efficiency, transportation conditions, state economic policy, the general market situation and prices of alternative products play an important role. This product produces many refineries in different parts of the world. Gas Oil, which provides futures on the London stock exchange, is delivered by barges to the ports of Antwerp, Rotterdam and Amsterdam. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts

NATURAL GAS

NATURAL GAS - Natural Gas Futures Contracts. Its full name on the exchange is Henry Hub Natural Gas. The months of delivery for these contracts are all months of the year. You can meet contracts with the following tickers: NGF2, NGG2, NGH2, NGJ92, NGK2, NGM2, NGN2,NGQ2, NGU2, NGV2, NGX2, NGZ2. The number at the end indicates the year of delivery, and the letter in front of it is the corresponding month. The size of the natural gas contract is 10,000 million UK thermal units, abbreviated BTU (BTU). This is the unit of energy used in the United States. One cubic meter of natural gas contains about 36, 5 thousand. BTE. Quotations are in United States dollars and cents per million British thermal units. 1 teak is one thousandth, and costs $10. The initial margin for opening one contract in the Grandcapital Trader terminal is $4000. Supporting margin - twice as low, i.e. $2000 Natural gas is now widely used in the chemical industry as a feedstock. It is also used for heating residential buildings, as fuel for cars and power plants. In recent years, both the gas itself and the hydrogen produced from it have been increasingly used as automotive fuel. According to experts, the reserves of natural gas in the world are huge, they amount to about three hundred trillion cubic meters. Natural gas is located in the ground, at a depth of one to several kilometers. At the same time, it is often associated gas in oil production. In the past, it was unprofitable to transport and sell natural gas, and it was simply burned at the production site. In many countries, this practice is prohibited by law, but in a number of States it occurs today. Natural gas accounts for a quarter of U.S. energy consumption, and natural gas futures contracts are widely used as a benchmark for domestic electricity prices. Gas pipelines stretch throughout the eastern coast of the United States, in the northern part of the Gulf Coast and the Midwest up to the border with Canada. The spread between natural gas futures and electricity futures allows you to manage price risks in the power market. The price for this contract is based on supplies from the Henry Hub Gas Storage Facility in Louisiana, USA. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

MINI CRUDE OIL

MINI CRUDE OIL - Mini contract for Light Sweet Crude Oil. Its official name is E-Mini Crude Oil. The base asset of the contract is Light Sweet Crude Oil. The size of the futures mini-contract for oil is standard and amounts to 500 barrels, that is, a little more than 68 tons. Quotations for the Mini Light Sweet contract are indicated in dollars and US cents per barrel. 1 tick is 0.025 and costs $12.5. Crude oil is the best-selling raw material in the world. The largest exchanges on which oil supply contracts are concluded are London, New York and Singapore. However, contracts for the supply of petroleum products are traded around the world. The produced oil is far from uniform in quality and, therefore, in cost. Prices depend on the density and various paraffin additives mixed into the raw materials. The standard for prices is Brent oil, similar in composition to that produced in the North Sea. Light Sweet Crude Oil is the most popular type of crude oil. Most of all, it is purchased by the United States of America and China. The following countries produce such oil: Angola, Canada, Denmark, Indonesia, Libya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Sudan, Great Britain and the USA. There are several classifications of oil grades in the world, which creates considerable confusion. Americans consider West Texas light oil, sometimes called & quot;light sweet," to be the standard, following the English name "light sweet." "Light" is called oil with a low paraffin content. It is more convenient to transport and distille through oil pipelines than "heavy" because it has a lower viscosity. The "sweetness" of oil is determined through its sulfur content. "Sweet" oil is considered if it contains less than 0.5% sulfur. The chemical composition really gives it a sweet taste. In the 19th century, field explorers tasted oil to determine its quality. In such oil, the content of fractions that are used to produce high-quality gasoline, kerosene and diesel is high. Therefore, it costs more than Brent and Russian Urals. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

Gasoline futures

GASOLINE - Gasoline Futures Trading time: 9:00 - 14:30 NYT (open auction), 18: 00-17: 15 NYT (e-bidding) Contract scope: 42,000 gallons (about 159 cubic meters) Contract months: 36 months sequentially Exchange quotation: price in cents per gallon Minimum price step: $0.0001 (1/100 cent) per gallon ($4.20 per contract) Last Trading Day (LTD): last working day of the month preceding. to delivery Price change limit: every $0.25 per gallon - 5 min break. Contract Type Supply and Settlement Gasoline is almost the best-selling product in the United States, it accounts for half of the total consumption of all petroleum products in the country. This is a very extensive market with many distributors and even more retailers, which contributes to strong price competition. To try on the price of the New York exchange to Russian realities, you need to remember that 1 gallon = 3.785 liters. Add 65 cents to the exchange quote (these are taxes) and divide by 3.8 to get the approximate cost of a liter of gasoline at gas stations in New York. The abbreviation RBOB means "Reformulated Gasoline Blendstock for Oxygen Blending," or approximately "a set of reformulated gasoline for oxygen kneading." When 10% ethanol is added, this product is converted to conventional automotive gasoline. The American standard of unleaded gasoline is considered an oil product located in the wholesale terminals of the east coast of the country, near New York - the main center for the import and internal transportation of petroleum products from the bases of the New York harbor and the Gulf of Mexico. Fundamental factors Gasoline is a crude oil refined product, from which up to 2/3 of a barrel of gasoline can be obtained. Prices for this energy carrier experience seasonal fluctuations - local lows are reached in December, highs are in May. Cleaning plants are usually preparing for the "hot" summer season (a surge in car trips) since the beginning of spring. Closures or accidents of storage facilities and production plants spur gasoline prices to increase. Numerous hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico can lead to a sharp jump in prices, since it is in this region that most US oil terminals and bases are located. The price of gasoline depends heavily on oil prices. The tool is traded in Standard, Swap Free accounts.

Markets

BNB/USD

Binance Coin vs USA Dollar

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BCC/USD

Bitcoin Cash vs USD Dollar

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BTC/USD

Bitcoin vs USD Dollar

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LTC/USD

Litecoin vs USA Dollar

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XPR/USD

Ripple vs USA Dollar

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BTC/JPY

Bitcoin vs Japanise Yen

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ETH/JPY

Ethereum vs Japanise Yen

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BCC/JPY

Bitcoin Cash vs Japanise Yen

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LTC/JPY

Litecoin vs Japanise Yen

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LTC/USD

Ripple vs Japanise Yen

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ETH/USD

Ethereum vs USA Dollar

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Benefits of
No Dealing Desk Execution
Deep Liquidity
Gain access to deep liquidity and benefit from the best available bid and ask prices every time you place a trade.
Award-Winning Broker
Our awards are the spotlight of viptrade’s impeccable technical excellence, its perfect trading conditions and the highest levels of service‌.
Ultra-fast Execution
With a previous record of 199,397 orders filled in a single day, viptrade lets you benefit from ultra-fast order execution. Most client orders are filled in under 14 milliseconds.
How Are My Trades
Executed?
Your trades are executed
with no intervention, see
below:
Execution Engine
Order Book
Due to the high volumes of our client’s trades, we are able to internally match a great deal of our order flow. This allows us to minimize our risk without interfering with your orders in any way.
INTERNALLY MATCH
As not all client positions are hedged, a residual exposure up to our market risk limit remains in house. Excess exposure may be hedged externally.
RESIDUAL
EXPOSURE
Why VIPTRADE is not an STP Broker

STP (Straight-Through-Processing) is one of the most commonly misinterpreted terms in the trading industry. Although it is often considered to relate to the execution that a client receives from their broker, STP is in fact a post-execution, post-trade communication process between executing counterparties with minimal impact on the speed or price of execution that a retail trader is offered. Though FxPro does use STP technologies, we classify ourselves as NDD in accordance to our method of order execution.

Why VIPTRADE is not an ECN Broker

ECN stands for Electronic Communication Network and is frequently confused with NDD execution. However, ECN refers to the anonymous communication between executing counterparties which may, in fact, result in no guaranteed fills and worse pricing for the retail trader. VIPTRADE is a true No Dealing Desk Execution broker, meaning that we execute client orders with no dealing desk intervention.

Full Transparency
VIPTRADE is an advocate of the adoption of more transparent and ethical practices across the online trading industry. For this reason, we have developed an award-winning model of execution that meets both trader demands and ethical standards.
2020 Slippage Stats3
In the FX market, prices change by the millisecond. In 2020, 80.48% of market orders were executed at the requested price while 9.6% of client orders were executed with positive slippage, receiving an even better price
Statistics on requisitions in 2020
In 2020, only 1.14% of all instant orders received a requote with 0.54% of them receiving an even better price to execute their order at.

Laverage Information

Please read the below information regarding the order execution policy on each of our 3 main trading platforms. Please note that the maximum leverage offered by VipTrade's entities is explained in more detail below.

Financial Instruments Maximum Laverage(Global)
Forex Majors 1:500
Forex Minors 1:500
GOLD, GOLD/EURO, GOLD oz, GOLD gr 1:100
SILVER, SILVER/EURO 1:2
PLATINUM 1:50
Spot Indices Major 1:500
Spot Indices Minor 1:100
Future Indices Major 1:50
Future Indices Minor 1:50
Energy Spot 1:100
Energy Futures 1:100
Commodity Futures 1:50
US, UK, French & German Shares 1:25
Crypto 1:10

Forex Laverage

VipTrade uses a dynamic forex leverage model on the MT5 platform which automatically adapts to the clients trading positions. As the volume per Instrument of a client increases the maximum leverage offered decreases accordingly; as per the following table.

This is done per trading instrument; thus if a client has positions open across multiple instruments the leverage will be calculated separately on each forex symbol. For example, if a trader has 300 lots Buy on USDJPY and then starts trading EURUSD, his/her margin requirement for EURUSD will not be affected by the existing USDJPY positions.

The sum of the positions is calculated in the following way. Consider a trader has 300 lots Buy and 200 Lots Sell. To calculate the required margin, one would take the side with the largest volume (sum). In this example, the side with the largest exposure is the 300 Buy, and as such, 300 would be the value used in calculating the required margin. Furthermore, a trader with 6 positions of 50 lots Buy (or Sell), and a trader of a single position of 300 lots Buy (or Sell), would require the same margin; given their accounts have identical leverage settings.

Open Lots Maximum Laverage
0-100 Max 1:500
100-200 Max 1:200
200-300 Max 1:100
300-500 Max 1:50
500+ Max 1:33

Note:Maximum leverage for ZAR crosses is 1:100, for CNH, ILS, THB & RUB crosses is 1:50, and for DKK, CZK, HKD, TRY & SGD crosses is 1:20.

Example 1

1:30 Major

Example 2

1:30 Minor

Example 3

1:50

Example 4

1:100

Example 5

1:500

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a EUR account with 5 Buy (or Sell) lots EURUSD.

Lots Maximum Laverage Applicable Laverage Margin
5 1:30 1:30 5 (Lots) * 100,000 / 30 (leverage) = 16,666.67 EUR
- - - Total Required Margin: 16,666.67 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a AUD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lots AUDCAD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less than the account's leverage, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Maximum Laverage Applicable Laverage Margin
3 1:30 1:20 3 (Lots) * 100,000 / 20 (leverage) = 15,000 AUD
Total Required Margin: 15,000 AUD

Client Account Leverage – 1:50

Consider a USD account with 200 Buy (or Sell) lots USDJPY. In this example, the account leverage is less than symbols’ relevant values in the Leverage Monitor table, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Maximum Laverage Applicable Laverage Margin
0-100 1:500 1:50 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 50 (leverage) = 200,000 USD
100-200 1:200 1:50 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 50 (leverage) = 200,000 USD
200-300 1:100 1:50
Total Required Margin: 400,000 USD

Client Account Leverage – 1:50

Consider a USD account with 200 Buy (or Sell) lots USDJPY. In this example, the account leverage is less than symbols’ relevant values in the Leverage Monitor table, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Maximum Laverage Applicable Laverage Margin
0-100 1:500 1:100 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 100 (leverage) = 100,000 GBP
100-200 1:200 1:100 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 100 (leverage) = 100,000 GBP
200-300 1:100 1:100 50 (Lots) * 100,000 / 100 (leverage) = 50,000 GBP
Total Required Margin: 250,000 GBP

Client Account Leverage – 1:500

Consider a EUR account with 300 Buy (or Sell) lots EURUSD In this example, the account leverage is greater than symbols’ relevant values in the Leverage Monitor table, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Maximum Laverage Applicable Laverage Margin
0-100 1:500 1:500 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 500 (leverage) = 20,000 EUR
100-200 1:200 1:200 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 200 (leverage) = 50,000 EUR
200-300 1:100 1:100 100 (Lots) * 100,000 / 100 (leverage) = 100,000 EUR
Total Required Margin: 170,000 EUR

Metals Margin Requirements

VipTrade uses a dynamic leverage model on the MT5 and platforms for trading precious metals, which automatically adapts to clients' trading positions. As the trading volume per Instrument of a client increases, the maximum leverage offered decreases accordingly; as per the following table.

This is done per Trading Instrument, so if a client has positions open across multiple Instruments, the leverage will be calculated separately on each symbol. For example, if a trader has a position in Silver and then starts trading Gold, his/her margin requirement for Gold will not be affected by the existing Silver positions.

Symbols Lots Margin Requirement Maximum Laverage(Limited)
GOLD, GOLDEURO, SILVER, SILVEREURO 0-50 0.5% 1:200
50.01-100 1% 1:100
100.01-150 2% 1:50
>150.01 4% 1:25
GOLDoz 0-5,000 0.5% 1:200
5,001-10,000 1% 1:100
10,001-15,000 2% 1:50
>15,001 4% 1:25
GOLDgr 0-155,500 0.5% 1:200
155,501-311,000 1% 1:100
311,001-466,500 2% 1:50
>466,500 4% 1:25
PLATINUM All 2% 1:50

Example 1

1:30

Example 2

1:30

Example 3

1:50

Example 4

1:100

Example 5

1:500

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lot of Gold at spot price of 1,500 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less than the account's leverage, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin
3 50% 5% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 3 (Lots) * 1,500 (price of gold spot) $22,500.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 2 Buy (or Sell) lot of Silver at spot price of 17.833 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:10) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin
2 10% 10% (margin req.) * 5000 (oz) * 2 (Lots) * 17.833 (price of Silver spot) $17,833.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:50

Consider a USD account with 10 Buy (or Sell) lot of Gold at spot price of 1,250 USD. In this example, the account leverage is less than symbols’ relevant values in the Leverage Monitor table, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Margin Requirement Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin
10 0.50% 2% 2% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 10 (Lots) * 1,250 (price of gold spot) $25,000.00
Total Margin Required = $25,000.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:100

Consider a USD account with 100 Buy (or Sell) lot of Gold at spot price of 1,250 USD. In this example, the account leverage is less than symbols’ relevant values in the Leverage Monitor table, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Margin Requirement Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin
50 0.50% 1% 1% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 50 (Lots) * 1,250 (price of gold spot) $62,500.00
50 1.00% 1% 1% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 50 (Lots) * 1,250 (price of gold spot) $62,500.00
Total Margin Required = $125,000

Client Account Leverage – 1:500

Consider a USD account with 150 Buy (or Sell) lot of Gold at spot price of 1,250 USD. In this example, the account leverage is greater than symbols’ relevant values in the Leverage Monitor table, so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Margin Requirement Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin
50 0.50% 0.50% 0.50% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 50 (Lots) * 1,250 (price of gold spot) $31,250.00
50 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 100 (Lots) * 1,250 (price of gold spot) $62,500.00
50 2.00% 2.00% 2.00% (margin req.) * 100 (oz) * 100 (Lots) * 1,250 (price of gold spot) $125,000.00
Total Margin Required = $218,750.00

Futures Margin Requirements

VIPTRADE uses a dynamic leverage model on the MT5 platforms for trading futures, which automatically adapts to clients' trading positions. As the trading volume per Instrument of a client increases, the maximum leverage offered decreases accordingly; as per the following table.

Open Lots Margin Requirement Maximum Laverage
0-50 2% 1:50
50-100 4% 1:25
100-150 10% 1:10
150-300 16% 1:6.25
> 300 20% 1:5

Example 1

1:30

Example 2

1:30

Example 3

1:50

Example 4

1:100

Example 5

1:200

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a EUR account with 10 Buy (or Sell) lots of DAX Future at 12,400. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
10 5% 10(Lots) *25(EUR) *12,400 (Opening Price) * 5%(margin req.) 155000 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a EUR account with 10 Buy (or Sell) lots of DAX Future at 12,400. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
10 5% 10(Lots) *25(EUR) *12,400 (Opening Price) * 5%(margin req.) 155000 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a EUR account with 10 Buy (or Sell) lots of DAX Future at 12,400. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
10 5% 10(Lots) *25(EUR) *12,400 (Opening Price) * 5%(margin req.) 155000 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a EUR account with 10 Buy (or Sell) lots of DAX Future at 12,400. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
10 5% 10(Lots) *25(EUR) *12,400 (Opening Price) * 5%(margin req.) 155000 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a EUR account with 10 Buy (or Sell) lots of DAX Future at 12,400. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
10 5% 10(Lots) *25(EUR) *12,400 (Opening Price) * 5%(margin req.) 155000 EUR

Energy Futures / Spot Margin Requirements

VIPTRADE uses a dynamic leverage model for trading future energies, which automatically adapts to clients' trading positions. As the trading volume per Instrument of a client increases, the maximum leverage offered decreases accordingly; as per the following table.

Open Lots Margin Requirement
0-20 1.00%
20-100 2.50%
> 100 5.00%

Example 1

1:30

Example 2

1:50

Example 3

1:100

Example 4

1:200

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lot of WTI at spot price of 55.10 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:10) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement opening_price Margin USD
3 10% 10%(margin req.) *1000 (Contract Size) * 3 (Lots) * 55.10(price of WTI spot) $16530.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lot of WTI at spot price of 55.10 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:10) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
3 10% 10%(margin req.) *1000 (Contract Size) * 3 (Lots) * 55.10(price of WTI spot) $16530.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lot of WTI at spot price of 55.10 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:10) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
3 10% 10%(margin req.) *1000 (Contract Size) * 3 (Lots) * 55.10(price of WTI spot) $16530.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lot of WTI at spot price of 55.10 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:10) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
3 10% 10%(margin req.) *1000 (Contract Size) * 3 (Lots) * 55.10(price of WTI spot) $16530.00

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 3 Buy (or Sell) lot of WTI at spot price of 55.10 USD. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:10) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Lots Applicable Margin Requirement Margin Margin USD
3 10% 10%(margin req.) *1000 (Contract Size) * 3 (Lots) * 55.10(price of WTI spot) $16530.00

Indices Margin Requirements

VIPTRADE uses a dynamic leverage model for indices, which automatically adapts to clients' trading positions. As the amount of indices of a client increases, the leverage offered decreases accordingly; as per the following table.

Margin Requirement 0.50% 1.00% 1.50% 2% 4% 10% 16% 20%(for greater than)
(AUS200, Euro50, France40, Germany30, Japan225, UK100, US30, USNDAQ100, USSPX500) 50 50 100 300 750 1,000 1,250 3,500
(ChinaA50, ChinaHShar, France120, Germany50, Swiss20, Spain35, GerTech30, Holland25, HongKong50, UKmid250) - 100 100 300 750 1,000 1,250 3,500

Example 1

1:30

Example 2

1:30

Example 3

1:50

Example 4

1:100

Example 5

1:200

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 4 Buy (or Sell) lot of #US30 at spot price of 27082. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Units Applicable Margin Req. Margin (Units*Margin Required*Opening Price) Margin Margin USD
4 5% 4*5%*27082 5,416 USD

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider a USD account with 4 Buy (or Sell) lot of #US30 at spot price of 27082. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Units Applicable Margin Req. Margin (Units*Margin Required*Opening Price) Margin Margin USD
4 5% 4*5%*27082 5,416 USD

Client Account Leverage – 1:50

Consider a USD account with 4 Buy (or Sell) lot of #US30 at spot price of 27082. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Units Applicable Margin Req. Margin (Units*Margin Required*Opening Price) Margin Margin USD
4 5% 4*5%*27082 5,416 USD

Client Account Leverage – 1:100

Consider a USD account with 4 Buy (or Sell) lot of #US30 at spot price of 27082. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Units Applicable Margin Req. Margin (Units*Margin Required*Opening Price) Margin Margin USD
4 5% 4*5%*27082 5,416 USD

Client Account Leverage – 1:200

Consider a USD account with 4 Buy (or Sell) lot of #US30 at spot price of 27082. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:20) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Units Applicable Margin Req. Margin (Units*Margin Required*Opening Price) Margin Margin USD
4 5% 4*5%*27082 5,416 USD

Shares Margin Requirements

VIPTRADE uses a dynamic leverage model for trading shares, which automatically adapts to clients' trading positions. As the exposure of a client increases, the maximum leverage offered decreases accordingly; as per the following table.

Please note that margin requirements for shares may be increased up to 5 business days prior to an upcoming company earnings report and/or corporate and/or other action.

Margin Requirement 4.00 % 10.00 % 20.00 % 60.00 %
French Shares < 25,000 < 50,000 < 75,000 75,000+
German Shares < 25,000 < 50,000 < 75,000 75,000+
UK Shares < 25,000 < 50,000 < 75,000 75,000+
US Shares * < 25,000 < 50,000 < 75,000 75,000+

Example 1

1:30

Example 2

1:30

Example 3

1:50

Example 4

1:100

Example 5

1:200

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider an EUR account with 1500 shares Buy (or Sell) of #Lufthansa at 14.30 EUR. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:5) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Volume in USD Indicative No. of Shares Margin Requirement opening_price Margin
21,450.00 1,500 20.0% 14.30 1,500(Shares) * 14.30 (Opening Price) * 20.0%(margin req.) = 4290 EUR
Total Margin Required = 4290 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:30

Consider an EUR account with 1500 shares Buy (or Sell) of #Lufthansa at 14.30 EUR. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:5) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Volume in USD Indicative No. of Shares Margin Requirement opening_price Margin
21,450.00 1,500 20.0% 14.30 1,500(Shares) * 14.30 (Opening Price) * 20.0%(margin req.) = 4290 EUR
Total Margin Required = 4290 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:50

Consider an EUR account with 1500 shares Buy (or Sell) of #Lufthansa at 14.30 EUR. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:5) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Volume in USD Indicative No. of Shares Margin Requirement opening_price Margin
21,450.00 1,500 20.0% 14.30 1,500(Shares) * 14.30 (Opening Price) * 20.0%(margin req.) = 4290 EUR
Total Margin Required = 4290 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:100

Consider an EUR account with 1500 shares Buy (or Sell) of #Lufthansa at 14.30 EUR. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:5) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Volume in USD Indicative No. of Shares Margin Requirement opening_price Margin
21,450.00 1,500 20.0% 14.30 1,500(Shares) * 14.30 (Opening Price) * 20.0%(margin req.) = 4290 EUR
Total Margin Required = 4290 EUR

Client Account Leverage – 1:200

Consider an EUR account with 1500 shares Buy (or Sell) of #Lufthansa at 14.30 EUR. In this example, the symbols' leverage is less (1:5) than the account's leverage (1:30), so the margin required would be as below:

Volume in USD Indicative No. of Shares Margin Requirement opening_price Margin
21,450.00 1,500 20.0% 14.30 1,500(Shares) * 14.30 (Opening Price) * 20.0%(margin req.) = 4290 EUR
Total Margin Required = 4290 EUR
Calculating Forex Margin Requirements with Flexible Leverage

For MICRO/PRO/VIP Accounts

Step 1

Assume you open Position #1 Buy 1 lots GBPUSD 1.4584 for a USD Denominated Account.

The notional value is: 1 * 100 000 * 1.4584 = 145 840 USD . Since the notional value of 145 840 USD is not above 200 000 USD, the Leverage offered is 1:1000.

Margin is: 145 840 / 1000 = 145.84 USD.

Step 2

You open position # 2 Buy 5 lots EURUSD 1.3175.

The notional value is: 5 * 100 000 * 1.3175 =. 658 750 USD

The aggregate notional value of Position #1 and Position #2 is:

145 840 (for position # 1) + 658 750 (for position # 2) = . 804 590.00 USD

In this case, the aggregate notional value of open positions is above 200 000 USD, but under 2 000 000 USD.

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 200 000 USD, and a leverage of 1:500 for the remaining 604 590 USD.

Margin is: 200 000 / 1000 + 604 590 / 500 = 1 409.18 USD.

Step 3

Assume you open Position #3 Buy 10 lots GBPUSD 1.4590.

The notional value is: 10 * 100 000 * 1.4590 = . 1 459 000 USD

The aggregate notional value of all three positions is:

client.145 840 (for position # 1) + 658 750 (for position # 2) + 1 459 000 (for position # 3) = . 2 263 590 USD

Now the aggregate notional value of open positions is above 2 000 000 USD, but under. 6 000 000 USD

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 200 000 USD, a leverage of 1:500 for the next 1 800 000 USD, a leverage 1:200 for the remaining amount.

Margin is: 200 000 / 1000 + 1 800 000 / 500 + 263 590 / 200 = 5 117.95 USD.

Step 4

Assume you open Position #4 Buy 30 lots EURUSD 1.3164.

The notional value is: 30 * 100 000 * 1.3164 =. 3 949 200.00 USD

The aggregate notional value of all four positions is:

145 840 (for position # 1) + 658 750 (for position # 2) + 1 459 000 (for position # 3) + 3 949 200 (for position # 4) = . 6 212 790.00 USD

Now the aggregate notional value of open positions is above 6 000 000 USD, but less than 8 000 000 USD.

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 200 000 USD, a leverage of 1:500 for the next 1 800 000 USD, leverage 1:200 for the next 4 000 000 and leverage 1:100 for the remaining amount.

Margin is: 200 000 / 1000 + 1 800 000 / 500 + 4 000 000 / 200 + 212 790 / 100 = 25 927.90 USD

Step 5

Assume you open Position #5 Buy 20 lots EURUSD 1.3188

The notional value is: 20 * 100 000 * 1.3188 = 2 637 600.00 USD.

The aggregate notional value of all five positions is:

145 840 (for position # 1) + 658 750 (for position # 2) + 1 459 000 (for position # 3) + 3 949 200 (for position # 4) + 2 637 600 (for position # 5) = 8 850 390.00 USD.

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 200 000 USD, a leverage of 1:500 for the next 1 800 000 USD, a leverage 1:200 for the next 4 000 000, a leverage 1:100 for the next 2 000 000 and a leverage of 1:25 for the remaining amount.

Margin is: 200 000 / 1000 + 1 800 000 / 500 + 4 000 000 / 200 + 2 000 000 / 100 + 850 390 / 25 = 77 815.60 USD

Step 6

Let's suppose you close position #3 (Buy 10 lots GBPUSD 1.4590)

The notional value is: . 1 459 000 USD

The aggregate notional value of all four positions is (taking into account the third position having been closed):

145 840 (for position # 1) + 658 750 (for position # 2) + 3 949 200 (for position # 4) + 2 637 600 (for position # 5) = . 7 391 390.00 USD

When Position #3 was closed, the total notional value also decreases which leads to a decrease in the margin requirements. The part exceeding 8 000 000 USD is removed first and with it the 1:25 leverage.

Margin is: 200 000 / 1000 + 1 800 000 / 500 + 4 000 000 / 200 + 1 391 390 / 100 = 37 713.90 USD

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